Bibliography: Diversity at the workplace: opportunities and challenges
Table of Contents
Mazibuko, J. V., & Govender, K. K. (2017). Exploring workplace diversity and organisational effectiveness: A South African exploratory case study. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 15, 10. https://sajhrm.co.za/index.php/sajhrm/article/download/865/1339
According to the authors, managing diversity and transformation are organisational imperatives. It is significant for international organisations to embrace workplace diversity to achieve organisational benefits, especially in the context of South Africa where organisational culture is largely different from European countries. The authors said that diversity is not only a managerial perspective to manage, it delivers the values through employees. The research aims to investigate the perception of the staff and managers on diversity and values of diversity perspective for the businesses. The study explores the relationship between organisational performance and effectiveness through the design and testing of five hypotheses. The study also explores how the recent legislation in South Africa is helping to manage diversity at the workplace and leading organisational transformation. However, not all businesses understand the benefits and opportunities associated with diversity management. Therefore, the study aims to examine how the managerial and staff perception for diversity draws an impact on organisational performance and effectiveness.
Research methods used
The research uses a combination of qualitative and quantitative methods. For quantitative data, the authors surveyed 227 employees. There is the use of the Towers Watson Employment Employee Insight Survey to create and distribute the survey to the target audience. For analysis of the relationship between performance and effectiveness, there is the use of the inferential statistical technique. Related variables are postulated through the defined hypotheses. The quantitative survey is considered as it helped to examine employees’ perception of diversity and relevance of the divergent workforce on performance and effectiveness factors of individual and business. For the quantitative survey, it sends a survey to 539 employees. For the stratified sampling purpose, there is a selection of 300 employees and their responses considering their race, gender and tenure, occupational level and experience of five years in an organisation. The questionnaire was distributed at the top management level and semi-skilled employees at the workplace who are meeting the sampling criteria. This survey received the participation of people having racing differences such as 239 employees were African, 7 employees were Indian and 49 employees were white.
The research method mirrored the employee insight survey, 2014. The survey contains a total of 25 questions with a Likert scale so that it becomes easy to analyse the data with high accuracy and reliability. Under qualitative research, the study explores various authentic literature reviews and contemporary papers from governmental departments such as the department of labour. It helped to obtain accurate data and it improves the performance and quality of the research.
The authors have identified that only eight senior managers and 15 middle managers are participating in the research. 74 of the total responses of the questionnaire are from unskilled employees and similarly, 82 of the responses are obtained from semi-skilled employees. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient statistics are used to test the reliability of the five dimensions of the survey. It is identified that performance has a direct impact when an organisation is managing and valuing diversity. Employees have a good understanding of diversity when working in a team under organisational procedures, initiatives and systems. It is also identified that the diversity management practices need to value the similarities and differences of the individual while maximising their potential of them. Most of the organisations are performing well to manage the respect and values of the employees in the workforce. It is identified that diversity as a success attribute, diverse customer needs and innovative solutions is not related to organisational productivity. It is not necessary that diversity drives the performance and there, the context of challenges and limitations of diversity needs exploration. Therefore, the research reveals that managing diversity is a pivotal role in organisational performance and effectiveness. Diversity is important for innovation, creativity and appreciation that add values to the organisation for benefits from diverse markets.
The usefulness of the paper
This paper is useful for my research as it provided a reliable literature review to understand the concept of diversity from the management and employee perspective. It allows identifying the core outcomes associated with the management of diversity such as innovation, creativity, performance and productivity. This paper helped to understand how management has a significant role to define the degree of diversity. Through the survey results, it indicated how diversity is valued by an individual at the workplace, at various organisational levels. It provides data related to the benefits and challenges of diversity management in the workplace. This paper is used to investigate how race as one of the dominant factors of discrimination and diversity can be integrated into the business environment for positive impacts on performance. Through the paper, it is identified that only a divergent workforce is not sufficient to meet the business goals, it demands management efforts and it is a practice of long-term orientation to value the employees for their similarities and differences positively.
Alay, H. K. (2020). Understanding the Dilemmas of Workplace Diversity: Personality Perspective. Global Journal of Management And Business Research. https://www.academia.edu/download/64718847/6_Understanding_the_Dilemmas.pdf
The author aims to explore how the diversity and personality of the employees are interconnected. According to the author, diversity has become a significant part of the business environment, especially due to migration and globalisation. Several factors are promoting workplace diversity in organisations. For instance, globalisation, global dynamics, merger and acquisitions, legal obligations, international agreements, free movement of the workforce and differences in socio-cultural dimensions are major contributors to diversity at the workplace. The author aims to explore the importance of value diversity and examine which features are extracted as a source of diversity among the employees. The research paper has the purpose to establish a relationship between diversity and personality holistically.
Research methods used
This study mainly uses quantitative research method to measure the perception of the employees for diversity and second, there is also use of the same results to extract the relationship between their personality and diversity among them. The study considers the sample size from Istanbul because it has a multicultural structure. Job opportunities at this location attract people of various backgrounds, languages, races and religions. The study aims to select 532 employees of various organisations through a questionnaire. There is the use of snowball sampling technique to collect data. In 2012, Tatlı and Özbilgin have developed multi-choice questions for the measurement of the diversity at workplace and the same survey is used in this research. The frequency distribution technique is used to analyse the data obtained from various sampling groups. Socio-economic characteristics of the employees are used to classify the employees into various categories.
The research also uses the study of literature review to examine secondary data available on diversity and its impact on the personality of the employees. It synthesises the data from various electronic databases such as the ISI Web of Knowledge database. The second study uses a systematic review of the papers to extract the required data. For that, it considers 21 research papers having personality and diversity as two keywords in the title of the papers.
The author generates findings of the first study through assessments made in the second study. It is identified that the quantitative study as carried out in the context of Turkey is generating significant values in the global area regarding its results. It means that the results are equivalently applicable in other locations and countries. It is identified that religious identity has a significant contribution when analysing the perception of the participants for work in a team. Second, sexual orientation is also impacting the employees for their teamwork. People with different personality traits are not willing to work in a team. Personality is the most dominant difference among the people at the workplace and it impacts contribution in workplace operations. It is identified that personality traits can suppress the impacts of gender, race and other differences. This research helps to identify that most of the employees can recognise the personality differences when working in divergent teams. The paper also helped to identify how various internal and external factors impact personality and diversity at the workplace. For instance, differences in aggregation, communication, equal opportunities, hiring discriminations, openness, job effectiveness and economic well-being impact the personality and create diversity.
According to the study, personality differences has a significant impact on the performance and efficiency of the workforce. From cultural adaption purpose also, personality has a major role to consider. It is identified that the management of diversity in the workforce has to consider people personality traits and behaviours to define the organisational approaches and potential challenges to integrate into the strategies.
The usefulness of the paper
There is two usefulness of the papers for my research. First, it helped to examine the relationship between diversity and personality of the working groups in the organisation. It helped to explore a new perspective on how diversity is challenging to integrate when personality traits are dominant in the differences among the groups. It indicates the impact of the personality, either at the managerial role or general staff can create opportunities and challenges in diversity management. Second, the study has usefulness to examine how quantitative data is useful to examine realistic responses on various aspects such as the impact on performance, effectiveness and innovation. Therefore, the study helps to examine how personality traits lead to diversity at the workplace and how it impacts organisational outcomes. It is valuable to explore the behavioural pattern of the employees in a diversified workforce because race, age, gender and other differences might be suppressed when there are high dissimilarities in personality traits of the employees.
Nowacka, M. E. (2017). Managing age diversity in the workplace-a challenge for contemporary organizations and managers. The Central European Review of Economics and Management (CEREM), 1(2), 113-132. https://www.econstor.eu/bitstream/10419/229731/1/cerem-v1-i2-331.pdf
Progressive demographic changes are creating large generation diversity at the workplace. The study aims to examine how intergenerational relations are developed at the workplace and what is the responsibility of managers toward the development of age-diverse staff in the work. Subsequent changes in demographics related to technology, engineering, economy and culture are playing a major role in the development of the workforce. These changes are also reshaping the approaches conventionally used for communication and business operations while attitudes, values and individual perspectives are being dominant to define workplace behaviour. The study aims to highlight that the generation usually changes in 25 to 30 years and age is becoming one of the major points of diversity. Therefore, the author aims to examine how relations are developing and impacting the work when considering age diversity in place and how the role of the managers is changing to manage the diversity positively.
Research methods used
The author is using two research methods: qualitative and quantitative methods. First, there is the use of qualitative research methods such as literature review to examine secondary data on intergenerational relations at the workplace and the role of managers in age diversity management. Second, the author conducts quantitative research using a questionnaire. There is an inclusion of 203 students from three different universities and alumni associations. There is a selection of the students instead of the working employees because the author aims to examine their perceptions to work in an age-diverse environment in future and how they perceive the support and practices of the management to support a positive work environment. Therefore, qualitative research helped to collect significant data from the existing research works in the domain. Further, it helped to develop an understanding of the role of managers in an age-diverse environment. This method is used to explore the current gap in the research and how it can be addressed through quantitative research in the domain. Therefore, quantitative research is considered to investigate the perspectives of future employees regarding managerial practices and age diversity at the workplace. The combination of both methods is required to work on the existing gap and determine new dimensions to explore for reshaping the managerial roles.
The research focused to analyse and reveal the problem of intergenerational isolation among different generations. It is examined that most of the organisations lack the common ground that can offer a comfortable environment for people of different ages. It is identified that the organisational lack to support age diversity causes an impact on workplace performance and productivity. Further, stereotypical thinking, fear, prejudice and lack of knowledge are some of the major things that impact the workplace relationship. It is hard to determine cross-generational cooperation considering actual differences, especially in terms of motivation, values and expectations of the people of a different generation. It creates challenges for the management to define the priorities and ensure alignment.
It is identified that the managers have a significant role to build a productive environment where age diversity can be integrated. It is one of the priorities of most organisations to achieve age-diverse staff while ensuring that individual is getting a respectful and equally treated environment. It is the role of the management to create opportunities for cooperation so that people from different generations can work together with better sharing of knowledge and experience. It is identified that there will be the impact of prejudice and stereotypes that will work as a barrier in the development of such an environment but a positive perspective of the management function can reduce the impact.
The usefulness of the paper
This paper has usefulness to explore age diversity instead of other aspects such as race, religion and sexual orientation. The article has importance to learn how a particular diversity aspect can impact the managerial function and organisational environment. It is examined that the generation gap is increasing in modern businesses because of the diversified set of employees in almost every domain. In my research, this paper helped to explore how age can be a point of consideration for management and how it defines opportunities and challenges for the business. Further, the article helped me to explore the role of managers in the management of diversity. It is revealed that managerial perspective for age and other diversity aspects define the workplace environment and interest and contribution of the employees. There is also an exploration of the various factors that can impact the business environment so that there is also analysis of the target benefits, opportunities and challenges for the employees and employers.
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