Assessment task 2: Progress report
Intent: This component provides students the opportunity to select and develop particular graduate attributes relevant to
their development needs to a level consistent with master’s program outcomes. In this first part of the 12 cp
project, this assessment task can either be a Literature Review or Review of Methods, Technologies etc. as
negotiated between the student and the supervisor.
Objective(s): This assessment task addresses the following subject learning objectives (SLOs):
1, 2, 3 and 4
Task: Project progress report (as this is the first part of a two-session 12 cp project) as determined by the outcomes of
the project and those negotiated through a learning contract.
Length: Typically of the order of 40 pages + appendices and any other evidence required by the supervisor
Due: Friday Week 12
Criteria: Assessment criteria are determined as part of the learning contract.
Please refer to the Coursework Assessments Policy and Procedures.
Health risks of breathable particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and smoke in the air 4
The global issue of indoor air pollution in developed countries is mostly affected. Despite this, the developing world still has a negative impact, mostly on small children and seniors. This initiative thus aims to emphasises the negative impact of indoor air pollution on children and adults living in a developed country’s urban residential areas. Control measures and their efficacy are often evaluated in conjunction with them. Many people have to discover the damage and the prevention measures before it becomes more fatal in the developing countries. Many people have to die or suffer from chronic conditions due to indoor air pollution.
Problem with air pollute, problems with particulate matter (PM), which can cause adverse effects for the wellbeing of children and the kids, elderly, must be seriously controlled and intervened. This problem needs to be addressed not only in any country, but in all parts of the world where daily busy plants and heavy traffic develop. The contaminated outside area penetrates and pollutes indoors (Bornstei et al., 2008). Not only is the source of interference from outside, but also due to emissions inside such as cuisine, smoking, room heating and the combustion of fossil fuels.
The bulk of the recent literature concerns adverse outcome for pulmonary wellbeing, including asthma, other respiratory effects and lung function and growth deficiencies, as well as susceptibility to air-pollutant environmental requirements. In addition to this, this paper highlights deaths, pregnancy results, reduction in vitamin D and modification in children’s immune systems. Some statistics concerning the health effects of better air quality on the health of children are presented, including the reduction in air emissions after the reunification of Germany in former Eastern Germany and the reduction of childhood asthma rates during the summer Olympics in Atlanta, Georgia, in 1996, due to reduced local motor traffic. However, several other harmful air toxins are emitted to the air annually. This contaminant is also potentially harmful to children, and are not tracked and not properly investigated on a regular basis (Smith et al., 2000). Ambient air pollution, which leads to substantial economic costs for society, is due to significant morbidity and mortality. As Canada’s cities rise, concerns of air quality need to be a priority, to protect children’s health and promote future generations’ sustainable growth.
The biggest cause of illness and premature death in babies in the world developing is indoor air pollution. Many experiments have been carried out to provide a causal relationship between indoor air quality and adverse health consequences. The World Health Organization (2020) claims almost 3.8 million premature deaths are caused annually by exposure to cooking smoke indoor emissions, mostly in low income countries with middle income. The economic influence is also enormous.
A large global public health challenge involves indoor air emissions, which requires increased investments in science and policy making. Indoors are also higher than outside, the concentrations of some contaminants may be. Moreover, due to long exposure times the presence of indoor contaminants may have a significant biological effect even at a low concentration. People spend 80%–90% of their day indoors and the kids, elderly spend much more time at home. This age group may also have particular importance for indoor air contaminants (Pope, 2000). Gives further attempts to research the impacts of air pollution on the health of older people, particularly indoor air quality tests, as the life expectancy of all developing countries increases. Various studies have examined the impact on the health of children, of indoor air quality. Some findings have shown that the incidence of respiratory and atopic diseases is increased even in the adult communities by indoor air emissions, but research on the health consequences of older adults is slimy.
The goal of this study is to include a summary of current health information about three common indoor air contaminants, namely repairable suspended particulates (RSP), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and tobacco smoke (ETS), which concentrate on the kids, elderly and the adults. In addition, two Italian trials conducted in general adult populations would present household intake distribution and health effects of these toxins on older subjects. Methodological questions and topics will be addressed for future study.
Health risks of breathable particulate matter, nitrogen dioxide and smoke in the air
The commonly measurable indoor pollutant is suspended particulate matter emitted by ETS, cooking, cleaning and rehabilitation operations, unvented gas and kerosene heaters indoors and by penetration from the outside. In general, the upper airways are to expel >10 μm, while in the smaller airways and alveoli 16 those <10 μm (e.g. RPS) may be stored. Several studies have recently found clear links between outdoor levels of RSP and mortality and morbidity, especially for kids, elderly people (Spengler and Sexton, 1983). There has been a clear association in some research between concentrations indoor and outside particulates (PM) that shows that outside concentrations can be regarded as an indoor proxy. In the other hand a small association between total personal PM exposure and outdoor concentration was observed using personal surveillance, indicating that indoor concentrations play an important role in the overall exposure and hence in the health effects.
Just a few trials have assessed the adult respiratory health effects of indoor RSP (Table 1 drug). The indoor contaminant analysis in the Po Delta region in Northern Italy found that RSP levels were moderately low with increasing acute respiratory symptoms. The sensitivity of RSP to bronchitis and asthma in the winter was significantly favourable. A similar correlation was also seen in summer in non-smokers. In addition, with elevated RSP sensitivity, the symptom length was higher. In terms of peak expiratory flow (PEF) and the variability thereof, increased sensitivity to RSP was correlated with both increased max amplitude and a change in PEF diurne. In Chinese neversmokers, aged 40 – 69 years, a study found a link between increased particulate level and the incidence of chronic respiratory diseases in the indoor particle levels on respiratory health (Seaton et al., 1995). A more recent research in Chinese adults has shown a tendency to increase respiratory symptoms with increasing indoor particulate matter with 50% off aerodynamic diameter of 10μm (PM10) sizes.
The NO2 produced by unvented gas cooking, kerosene and propane, space heaters, ETS and wood heating inside and penetration from outside is another widespread and readily detectable indoor pollutant. At high concentrations NO2 was found to cause lung injury. Also at moderate levels, NO2 can enter the conductive airways and cause respiratory symptoms and irrigative symptoms.
Few studies have been published on the connection of indoor NO2 to health in adults or the kids, elderly. The Po Delta analysis revealed a combination of comparatively low indoor NO2 levels with elevated acute breathing problems and lowering of PEF in adults. In the presence of elevated NO2 intake, bronchitis and asthmatic symptoms were considerably more prevalent. The longer period of the symptoms has included high sensitivity to NO2 (Luepker et al., 1996). An increased sensitivity to NO2 was also correlated in terms of both max amplitude and diurnal variance of PEF, with only chronic breathing disorders associated with major associations (i.e. asthma and bronchitis).
A research by UK adults found that the amount of forced expiratory energy used for cooking by subjects actually using gas relative to electricity was substantially decreased in one second (FEV1). An Australian research showed a substantial association with the presence of gas heaters at home with the rise in asthma in men. The elevated risk of respiratory symptoms and reduced lung function in women who did not smoked in Singapore was also linked with gas cooking.
ETS in many countries is normal indoor exposure and contributes greatly to indoor concentrations of RSP. The compound is >4000, many of which are known carcinogenic and irritant. ETS sensitivity evaluation issues were addressed beforehand. Studies have been expanding since the 1980s on the health consequences of ETS, with an emphasis on children and adult lung cancer (Bernstein et al., 2008). The table summarises the ETS and kids, elderly respiratory wellbeing etiological findings. It is equally dependent on the amount of research, their feasibility, dose reaction interaction data and biological plausibility, and on the causality of the relationships.
It is obvious that ETS causes lung cancer and coronary heart disease, which are also kids, elderly illnesses. Several cross-sectional tests have found that chronic respiratory signs and ventilator lung deficiencies have been improved in comparison to STD exposure in the home and/or on the workplace. A small amount of research has investigated the relationship between susceptibility to ETS and asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and the pneumococcal infections of the kids, elderly.
Further longitudinal trials on ETS and respiratory conditions in the kids, elderly are needed because even minor differences in the operation of the breathing will significantly affect kids, elderly’s quality of life (Lin et al., 2007). In addition, it is necessary for kids, elderly with an established condition to evaluate the consequences of ETS exposure, which can limit it to indoor areas with potential extremely high ETS exposure levels. Surprisingly, few research assessed ETS’s position for predicting known diseases such as asthma or COPD, but this may be crucial for the kids, elderly’s ability to operate on a daily basis.
The literature review discusses numerous chronic diseases caused by indoor emissions in new born and adults. This effects depending on exposure over a longer or short period of time. The principal cause was recognised for the high concentration of PM. During the construction phase, the government released some directives. In addition, different indoor air quality technology has been technologically involved. During many decades, indoor air pollution has become a clearly established and well-researched issue.
The research questions that this report seeks answer would be as below:
- What is the impact of indoor air pollution on the health of kids and kids, elder?
The primary purpose of this study is to recognise, over a period of three months, the inverse impact that indoor air pollution has on children and kids, elderly people and to examine the efficacy of health protection initiatives. Consequently, the results can show a road to potential advances to mitigate air pollution indoors.
In our environments, indoor air quality normalises. The indoor contamination of the atmosphere is dealt with carelessly in developing countries where urban residents do not come into close contact with biogas smoke and cooking smoke. Often every day in these areas are developing respiratory conditions and cardiovascular irregularity. There is also a need for investigation and consideration of indoor air emissions. The study has to be planned to gather reliable evidence without harming anybody’s feelings and upholding the guidelines of ethics.
Two panel trials were conducted in sub-samples of two randomised stratified samples from general Italian populations, previously examined in cross-sectional studies, to investigate the exposure and respiratory effects of NO2, RSP, and ETS.
The subjects meeting the following conditions have been chosen as sub-samples: 1) subjects with current asthma and/or asthma symptoms; 2) subject of bronchial hyper-reactivity (defined as a provocative dose that causes a 10 percent fall in FEV1 (PD10) <2.4 mg meth choline challenge); 3) current smokers with no asthmatic symptoms or bronchial hyper-reactivity; 4). One research was conducted in the PDA (n=428, 140 houses surveyed) 3 and another in Pisa, Central Italy (n=761, 282 house investments), respectively.
Subjects completed in everyday schedule of daily life (the time spent at home, cooking or doing other tasks, the time at work or school, in other indoor and outdoor environments) and on active respiratory symptoms in the course of the study (allergic symptoms and acute respiratory symptoms and symptoms). Acute signs were considered: fluid nose, sore throat, chest sputum, Chester coldness, breathlessness, attacks of breathlessness, whitish, and red, itchy, watery, or burning skin.
In previous cross-sectional research it was investigated the occurrence of Chronic Conditions and disorders, such as asthma and bronchitis. Per topic has taken PEFs four times a day using a Mini-Wright peak flowmeter for the purposes of evaluating lung function.
Each house was tracked for RSP measurements (i.e. aerodynamic particles in μg·m−3) and NO2 (in parts of each billion (ppb)) for 1 week during the winter and 1 week in the summer. Successful (two 48-hour) sampling of the RSP was conducted with a pre selector Dorr Oliver. In analyses, the average of the two 48-h values is used in the research week. In analyses, the average of the two 48-h values is used in the research week. Every week, NO2 sampling with passive samplers was performed (palm tubes), and spectrometric techniques (Saltzman reaction) were analysed. The NO2 (NO2-IndEx) and RSP (RSP-Index) exposure indices were calculated as the result of weekly average concentration and daily exposure period (i.e. the time spent at home). The clues were “medium” or “high” depending on values below the median value or above.
In comparison of dose and time distribution, the Chi-squared test was used to check variations in the frequency of respiratory symptoms between exposure groups and no parametrical Mann-Whitney U-test. In order to research the relationship between exposure and mean daily PEF levels, multiple linear regression, adjustments for season, sex, height and weight were used. Statistically important was p‐value <0.05. Analyses have been carried out in subjects = 65 years (n = 59 and 61 in winter and summer respective) on the impact of indoor contaminants on air signs in the kids, elderly.
The experiment is composed of human staff, air quality measuring equipment, a screening unit, a lungs testing spirometer and a blood sugar control package. It entails asking the public about their indoor air quality issues, monitoring air pollution levels in their homes and testing blood pressure, pulmonary and blood sugar levels. These statistics will be followed twice, once after a gap of three months, at the outset of the analysis, and the second time. Certain control measures such as adequate ventilation ideas, air purifiers and the use of indoor plants will be provided. Then the participants’ welfare will be monitored again after three months.
The study will be carried out in 2-3 separate urban suburban areas serving 30-35 households. The minimum data for babies is about 20. The medical equipment used for the test is suitable for children. The trustworthiness of this study would depend on the correct execution of the control steps. Any participants do not enforce the control measure as needed because it involves the purchase of air filters and indoor systems or the refurbishment of the ventilation system. This will need investment in monitoring.
Those who spend much of their day indoors living in the Po delta and Pisa fields. The number of hours of kids, elderly people spent at homes each day slightly higher (p<0.001) than those who were in other age groups. Home NO2 and RSP were dramatically above in winter (21 ppb vs. 15 ppb NO2 and 77 vs. 49 mg · 3 in RSP). RSP were significantly above average. In kitchens (33 and 20 ppb respectively in winter and summer) the highest NO2 values were determined.
Pisa analysis found that acute respiratory effects have been more common in the winter, 31% of ETS (31% of ETS) exposures, as compared to 29% of the unexposed) in the summer and 35% of ETS (33% of ETS exposed to 16% of ETS exposure). In response to exposure to high RSP, acute respiratory effects were consistently higher than low exposure (33 versus 27 percent in winter and 27 compared to 21 percent in summer) even though statistically meaningful variations had not occurred. ETS presence at home was linked to a decrease in the average PEF per day (effect estimate: -19,2 L·min−1, p<0,01).
This experiment will not be known by people. They are all seen as the happiest spot in their homes. Checking their houses’ air quality to see how contaminated, may seem weird to them, and may not take them seriously. If their homes’ air quality is not so poor, hypothesis H1 may be realised. However, if hypothesis H2 is true, the participants must be informed of the implications.
It was found that people spent 80%-90% of their day indoors, with this figure increasing in kids, elderly people. Po Delta and Pisa research have confirmed that 65 years of age people spend far more hours in the home than younger people. This study underlines the value of air quality indoor studies of older people who, because of underlying chronic diseases, could particularly vulnerable to low pollutant levels. It also confirms the importance, as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, of epidemiological analyses of exposure to outside and indoor sources separately. Studies of babies and children have addressed the health effects of indoor air pollution, but only a few studies examined these impacts in adults and older persons. The previous findings of the Po delta study revealed the combination of acute respiratory symptoms and decreased PEF in adults with comparatively low levels of indoor contaminants (e.g., in winter RSP 77 μg·m−3 and in summer NO2 ppb and in summer 15 ppb). The findings revealed a consistently higher number of acute respiratory symptoms in comparison to low exposure for older people living in the Po Delta or Pisa areas in response to high RSP exposure(Ezzati and Kammen, 2001). Furthermore, a drop in the average daily PEF was substantially correlated with a high RSP index. This results are in accordance with RSP’s and PEF’s unfavourable associations in previous indoor and outdoor trials.
More research on indoor and health emissions are clearly needed for adults and in particular for kids, elderly people. The creation of the technique for exposure evaluation is a significant future task. In future research both short and long-term impact of urban air pollution on wellbeing should be tackled. A significant factor in supporting prevention steps will also be to identify subgroups of kids, elderly people who are vulnerable to the adverse effects of air pollutants. Few studies have assessed the impact of indoor pollution on the pre-existing disease prognosis. Such studies may become a valuable new field of study, particularly for kids, elderly people who are already chronically ill, with potential high levels of exposure to incoherent being restricted to indoor environments.
Studies carried out so far show enough of an increase in morbidity and mortality caused by indoor air emissions and immediate action. The decision on energy and cooking is influenced by demographic, cultural and financial influences. (34) The Supreme Court Other considerations are supply and versatility of conventional oils, preparation of dishes, the taste of food and smoke, the aesthetic attractiveness of stoves and the vision of consumers on other options. Below is a list of proposed steps to mitigate the threat to indoor air pollution:
- Public awareness: Education, namely, sensitising individuals on the problem and its significant danger to their health and well-being is one of the most effective measures in preventing indoor air pollution. Training can help people find ways to reduce vulnerability to proper cooking control and child health at home (Zhang and Smith, 2007). The use of alternative cleaner energy sources to substitute for direct combustion of biofuel should also be enlightened. Stakeholders must not only involve the public, but also the legislators and managers to ensure that they remain committed and become mindful of the consequences of air pollution indoors.
- Change in pattern of fuel usage: Fuel use depends on ones’ habit, its supply, and most importantly, its affordability. Currently, most families in low incomes are primarily dependent on direct combustion of biomass fuels to meet their cooking requirements, as this is their cheapest and easiest alternative, but could be corrected by encouraging the use of cleaner energy sources, such as gas barrels that use cow dung to generate cooking gas.
- Modification of kitchen stove design: the stoves should have a power-efficient, smokeless and exiting fuel (eg. chimney) for indoor emissions, from the conventional smoky and leaky stoves. An example of this is the initiative by the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy’s National Biomass Cook stoves Initiative under a Special Cook stove Project for 2009-2010, with a primary objective of improving the supply of clean and reliable energy in poorest and energy-efficient parts of the world.
- Ventilation improvement: Proper ventilation is essential for building a house; measurements including a window over the cooker and cross-ventilation of doors should be introduced for poorly ventilated buildings.
- Indoor air pollution may only be monitored by concerted and committed efforts by various sectors of health, energy, climate, housing and rural development. Intersectional cooperation and global initiative.
Combating indoor air emissions and offering equal access to domestic renewable energy offers a huge incentive for health improvement, poverty reduction and climate protection, and therefore contributes substantially to the achievement of the following Millennium Development Goals (MDGs):
- Better energy practises for households would create income generating opportunities-MDG 1 (eradicate extreme poverty and hunger).
- With less time to gather petrol, children have less time to go to school and homework-MDG 2 because of ill health (achieve universal primary education).
- The time for women to generate income would help eliminate poverty and famine (MDG 1) and achieve equality between women and men (MDG 3).
- Better air health: MDG 4 (reduction of infant mortality), MDG 5 (enhancement of mother’s condition) and MDG 6 (fight against TB, HIV/AIDS).
- The use of household renewable energy would guarantee environmental protection; the World Health Organisation, as an indicator for monitoring success in the MDG 7 climate sustainability, reports on the ‘population share that uses solid fuels’ (MDG 7).
The key aim of this project is to demonstrate how air pollution impacts the health of infants and adults and how control strategies are successful. The study is intended to produce fruitful outcomes with the proposal of health screening and the suggestion of control steps. A number of data in favour of promising results are included in the literature review. The emphasis is on the issue and the detrimental impact of indoor air pollution. The control mechanisms can be shown to be successful in a short period, by careful execution and implementing procedures. There are also some limits that which affect the authenticity of the final outcome. However, in this project, problems associated with indoor air quality, particularly in developing countries where these problems are often ignored, can be deemed very helpful.
Bernstein, J.A., Alexis, N., Bacchus, H., Bernstein, I.L., Fritz, P., Horner, E., Li, N., Mason, S., Nel, A., Oullette, J. and Reijula, K., 2008. The health effects of nonindustrial indoor air pollution. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 121(3), pp.585-591.
Spengler, J.D. and Sexton, K., 1983. Indoor air pollution: a public health perspective. Science, 221(4605), pp.9-17.
Smith, K.R., Samet, J.M., Romieu, I. and Bruce, N., 2000. Indoor air pollution in developing countries and acute lower respiratory infections in children. Thorax, 55(6), pp.518-532.
Pope 3rd, C.A., 2000. Epidemiology of fine particulate air pollution and human health: biologic mechanisms and who’s at risk?. Environmental health perspectives, 108(suppl 4), pp.713-723.
Ezzati, M. and Kammen, D.M., 2001. Indoor air pollution from biomass combustion and acute respiratory infections in Kenya: an exposure-response study. The Lancet, 358(9282), pp.619-624.
Seaton, A., Godden, D., MacNee, W. and Donaldson, K., 1995. Particulate air pollution and acute health effects. The lancet, 345(8943), pp.176-178.
Lin, H.H., Ezzati, M. and Murray, M., 2007. Tobacco smoke, indoor air pollution and tuberculosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS Med, 4(1), p.e20.
Bernstein, J.A., Alexis, N., Bacchus, H., Bernstein, I.L., Fritz, P., Horner, E., Li, N., Mason, S., Nel, A., Oullette, J. and Reijula, K., 2008. The health effects of nonindustrial indoor air pollution. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, 121(3), pp.585-591.
Luepker, R.V., Perry, C.L., McKinlay, S.M., Nader, P.R., Parcel, G.S., Stone, E.J., Webber, L.S., Elder, J.P., Feldman, H.A., Johnson, C.C. and Kelder, S.H., 1996. Outcomes of a field trial to improve children’s dietary patterns and physical activity: the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH). Jama, 275(10), pp.768-776.
Zhang, J. and Smith, K.R., 2007. Household air pollution from coal and biomass fuels in China: measurements, health impacts, and interventions. Environmental health perspectives, 115(6), pp.848-855.