Blood Grouping and Antibody Screening

BMS3136 Transplantation, Transfusion and Specialist Biochemistry

Blood Grouping and Antibody Screening, Lab report

2021-22

Please complete the report using font Arial, size 11, line spacing 1.5.

  1. Based on the results of forward group typing as shown in the table below, identify the blood groups of each of the samples. If these patients receive whole blood transfusion, which blood group(s) are compatible to each of them? (Please insert your answers in the cells in the table) (2 marks)
Red blood cell samplesAnti-seraBlood groupsCompatible blood groups
Anti-AAnti-BAnti-D
14+3+3+  
24+00  
304+3+  
4000  

Persons with group O red cells are called universal donors. Does this apply to whole blood transfusion? Please explain your reasoning. (3 marks, maximum 150 words)

  • Routine ABO blood group typing should include both forward and reverse typing. Please  explain why this is necessary. (5 marks, maximum 150 words)  
  • Reverse group typing is not required in infants younger than 4 months of age. Please explain the reason. (5 marks, maximum 150 words)
  • The following table mimics ABO and Rh blood group typing using tiles. In each well, commercial anti-serum is added first, then red blood cell suspension is added. Draw the expected results in the table (non-shaded blanks). Please use ‘0’ to denote no agglutination and ‘+’ to denote agglutination. (2 marks)
Red blood cellsAnti-A serumAnti-B serumAnti-D serum
Group AAnti-A serum + A cellsanti-B serum + A cells 
   
Group BAnti-A serum + B cellsanti-B serum + B cells 
   
Group OAnti-A serum + O cellsanti-B serum + O cells 
   
Group ABAnti-A serum + AB cellsanti-B serum + AB cells 
   
Group Rh+  Anti-D serum + Rh+ cells
   
  • The follow figure shows the ABO and Rh blood group typing results from an 83-year-old male admitted to the hospital to undergo hip replacement. He has no history of prior transfusion history.

Identify the blood groups. Discuss the results and explain which condition(s) may lead to such results. (5 marks, maximum 150 words)

  • A 50-year-old male  was admitted to the hospital with intestinal obstruction. Two units of red blood cell were ordered for this patients. During  blood group typing, the following  results were obtained. 

a. What is this patient’s probable blood groups? (1 mark)

b. What is the discrepant result in ABO typing? (2 marks)

c. Please explain the reason(s) for this discrepancy and discuss which diseases/conditions may cause this phenomenon. (5 marks)

d. Will the patient’s ABO reactions convert back to normal? If so, when? (2 marks)

(In total 10 marks for Question 6, and maximum word count is 350)

  • The tiles and Diamed ID cards have both been used in the blood group typing during the practicals. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the Diamed ID cards over the tiles. (4 marks, maximum 150 words)
  • In antibody screening (tube testing), if an AHG test is negative, check cells must be added to the tube that does not exhibit agglutination. Discuss why this is necessary and the significance of this procedure. (7 marks, maximum 250 words)
  • In an antibody screening using 3-cell screen set, the following results were yielded.

 How would you interpret the results? (5 marks, maximum 250 words)

Referencing (2 marks)

  • The Harvard style of referencing (the Author-date style) is required for this lab report.
  • Please use the right format of referencing throughout the lab report, including the in-text citations and the reference list, and make sure that the in-text citations match the reference list.
  • The recommended sources of referencing include peer-reviewed academic journal articles, book chapters and academic conference abstracts, and most of the references should be peer-reviewed academic journal articles. Please DO NOT cite internet sources (such as information from research lab websites, university websites, commercial company websites, charity organisation websites, etc.) as references.  
  • Example of Harvard style of referencing

In the text:

The conventional procedure used to identify non-ABO erythrocyte antigens is by serological phenotyping that relies on the interaction of a polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies with the erythrocyte surface antigen (El Housse et al., 2019).

In the reference list:

El Housse, H., El Wafi, M., Ouabdelmoumene Z, Zarati, F., Alid, R., Nourichafi, N., Bouisk, K., Benajiba, M., Férec, C., Fichou, Y. and Habti, N. (2019) Comprehensive phenotypic and molecular investigation of RhD and RhCE variants in Moroccan blood donors. Blood Transfus. 17(2):151-156

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