SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND BUSINESS SERVICES
Te Wāhanga Whakaako Kaipakihi me te Hangarau Mōhiohio
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- According to Kopy (2005) , plagiarism “is deemed as being a form of intellectual theft” (p.33)
- Plagiarism is regarded “as being a form of intellectual theft” (Kopy, 2005, p.33).
Summarising & paraphrasing
- Contemporary research has shown that students learn more and gain a greater sense of achievement when they do their own original work (Demic, 2003).
- Demic (2003) showed that students learn more and gain a greater sense of achievement when they do their own original work.
- I have included a reference list at the end of my assignment that will enable a reader to retrieve the sources cited in my assignment e.g.
BookKopy, N. O. (2005). Evaluating intellectual theft and academic dishonesty: cases and consequences. (11th ed.). Auckland: FictitiousPublishers.
Journal article Jartic, I. M. (1997). Stress and studying. New Zealand Journal of Student Stress. 3. 15-21.
Web page Stricte, A. (2002). Plagiarism solutions home page. Retrieved April 1, 2005, from http://www.idonotexist.edu/plagiarism.html
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Product Development 341.738
Assignment 2: (Group Project)
Product Development 341.738
Assessment weighting: 70% of the final course mark
Submission: By the due date on canvas which utilises Turnitin
Format: Submit in WORD. No other format is acceptable. Do NOT PDF or use any other imaging format.
Marking: This is marked out of 100 and weighted to 70% of the course mark.
The development of the NPD is a group project. Each member will, in discussion with the group and the lecturer, assume responsibility for a section or sections that represents an equal division of inputs for the project. That member is primarily responsible for the quality and writing of that section(s). The group work will be submitted as one submission. Responsibility for the sections will be clearly identified in a table. This does not have to be in one section – you may mix, but be very clear who has that responsibility.
NOTE: The writer of each section has the responsibility to ensure the references for that section are complete and the section is referenced as needed. Issues relating to plagiarism within a section will fall to the author of that section.
Individual marks will be allocated as follows:
- The group project contributes 70 % of your individual mark. (49% of your overall course mark) – this mark is the same for all members of the group.
- A critique of the sections you were not primarily responsible for as individual work and submitted individually – contributes 30% of your individual mark. (21% of your overall course mark)
The critique is individual work.
Writing a Critique
- A concise description of the purpose of the section, what it intends to achieve and how it fits into the process of NPD.
- Discuss the importance of the element(s) of NPD in relation to the product and service, how critical it is to success and how this section may contribute to failure or success of the NPD.
- An analysis of the effectiveness/efficacy of the section in meeting the objectives (intent) including strengths and weaknesses.
- Efficacy of the NPD.
- Your opinion of how well this section prepares you for NPD for any other product or service. Has this given you knowledge and skills that are transferable?
Word limit – there is no word limit. Professional writing is concise, clear, well-structured and readable. This is an essential skill.
Recommendation – write your critiques as you work on the project sections as a group. Read the work of the group authors, contribute to the group for that section. A critique does not add to the work, it critiques.
Learning Outcomes Assessed:
LO2: Describe and critically evaluate the typical activities and best practices within the various stages and sub-stages of a generic New Product/Service Development (NPD) Process
LO3: Design a customized NPD Process for a particular firm contingency
LO4: Identify and critically evaluate appropriate NPD tools and methods, and demonstrate capability in applying some in a practical situation
The goals of this assignment are to:
- Develop an innovation management process based on an established framework – this is the sequential process of idea to production ramp up.
- Evaluate and critique the stages of product development. This is a theoretical discussion AND a practical application which considers best practices in the industry and discusses how your process aligns to best practice and will contribute to the success of that stage, including the implications of a failure of the stage.
- Critique will involve a discussion of contingency theory (contextualising the innovation process. Contingency theory relating to NPD is required for this step.
- NPD tools – At stages you are required to identify and evaluate tools, AND apply these tools to your product and service. Not all tools will be applicable but a wide discussion of potential tools with an evaluation to determine which to apply is advised.
You should read the following article as an introduction to contingency theory as applied to Innovation (new product development).
Salerno, M. S., Gomes, L. A. de V., Silva, D. O. da, Bagno, R. B., & Freitas, S. L. T. U. (2015). Innovation processes: Which process for which project? Technovation, 35, 59–70. http://doi.org/10.1016/j.technovation.2014.07.012
The article may be read online at http://sistemas-producao.net/lgi/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/Inovation-process.pdf
This assignment requires
- A product The product chosen must be discussed with the lecturer(s) and approved.
- A service – this may be a service element for the product or a new service. This must be discussed with the lecturer(s) and approved.
- Develop a new product, or, an innovation of an existing product, describe the product, evaluate the opportunity, test the market and evaluate the tools and risks. (15 marks)
- Show the ideation methodology employed including the brainstorming process ( a mind map is recommended)
- Set out the screening process used to select between new products identified or variations of the product chosen. Include your criteria (A table is recommended)
- The product opportunity must be clearly described and explained.- why is this an opportunity (evaluation of the product opportunity). For a summary see https://email@example.com/product-opportunity-assessment-dbcf32b52b52
- Describe the product by reference to
- Core elements
- Competitive products must be identified
Identify current products that compete with or offer solutions to the same problem or opportunity. If there is no direct alternative there are substitutes or alternative spends. If this is totally new you need to justify that. (It is very rare so ask the lecturer)
- Market testing process that you will employ must be set out.
Clearly identify the market testing phase including survey method, identify customer response, and reports on the results of the concept testing phase. This may be theoretical but show how you would carry this out. Refer to the target market, sample size and if this is representative.
- Identify and evaluate two best practices for ideation and market testing. (two for each)
- Identify the tools used for ideation, brainstorming and product opportunity evaluation. Evaluate those tools as you applied them to this product.
- One significant risk is required to be identified in the product opportunity evaluation. It must be quantified and a risk management technique proposed for the risk. (an ordinal scale may be used)
- Develop your product architecture (10 marks)
- Identify and evaluate TWO tools used in product architecture and how they apply to this product.
- Create the diagrams for product architecture. This must include the functional diagram as one picture, the chunking process as a second diagram, and a reasonably realistic depiction of the final product.
- Discuss and justify your choice of integral and/or modular architecture.
- Identify and evaluate TWO best practices for product architecture and apply to this product
- Identify and quantify the risks relating to the choice of modular and integral architecture (an ordinal or nominal scale may be used) applicable to this product.
- Prototyping. (15 Marks)
(note the prototype can be a physical model or a 3D drawing. including hand drawn)
- Provide drawings of the prototypes including Alpha, Beta and Final product. Drawings can be CAD, line, or hand drawn if this will provide sufficient detail. You are NOT expected to learn any CAD drawing for this
- Discuss tools used to develop the Alpha and Beta prototypes and the purpose and value of each in the NPD process.
- Provide a bill of materials for EACH prototype including quantities and source of materials.
- Identify the manufacturing process for the porotypes. This need only be in general terms referring to materials and construction.
- Discuss and evaluate best practices in prototype design and manufacture for NPD and consider these in terms of your product. Note that this relates only to prototyping.
- Discuss best practice in testing the Alpha, Beta and final prototype and how you will conduct testing of these prototypes
- Then discuss the methods you will use to test the three prototypes and the time required (this would normally include repetitions calculation but this will depend on the product chosen)
- Identify the manufacturing process for the production version of the product you intend to employ and briefly justify this choice (this may be done by comparison with other options effectiveness or efficiency, logistically or scale or other reason).
- Identify supply chain, regulatory, logistical or other risks associated with the prototype and Final product. Quantify and provide a risk management proposal for the risks.
- The Services Blueprint covering the ancillary services required to enhance the overall usage and post-purchase evaluation experience for your buyers (consumer/customers/clients)
Services (NPD) for a new service if approved by the lecturer. (15 marks)
- Discuss and critique the process of service blueprint development and current best practices.
- Develop a services blueprint for the new service.
- Identify how best practices has informed the development of your blueprint.
- Identify, quantify and propose a risk management strategy for the risks associated with the development and/or implementation of a service blueprint for this service.
- The Financial Model and analysis (15 marks)
Provide a financial model in excel.
- A basic model showing costs of prototype, costs to market, and start-up costs (these are approximations). Ensure this differentiates between porotypes, ramp up and production.
- Projected sales value forecast for 24 months using the assumptions you made in the product opportunity evaluation and market considerations.
- Identify your break even for the product using a basic contribution margin calculation.
- Working capital must be calculated.
- Using two significant criteria complete a simple sensitivity analysis to identify risks associated with this product.
- Discuss the importance and best practices in financial modelling of New product development as start-ups including forecasting, statements and KPI’s
Note:Adherence to accounting standards is not required in the spreadsheet. This should make sense as a cash flow analysis. The final question is wider and should discuss financial modelling in general terms.
Sensitivity. Use your financial model and change TWO elements you identify as significant risks and see how these changes affect the outcome. This will give an indication of the risk in this new product. This is a simple form of sensitivity analysis and is all that is required
Market analysis should be reasonable but deep market analysis is not required. You should identify the market, the size of the overall market and your target market share to provide a justification for the sales figures projected.
- Innovation Management (10 marks)
- Discuss the principles of innovation management, best practices in innovation management and relate to the development of your product.
- Create a table that identifies the steps your NPD. For each step and set out the issues that may arise and how these will be managed.
- NPD CONTINENCY CUSTOMISATION (10 marks)
- A particular contingency is identified. This should be substantial or more than one as necessary to demonstrate the design of a customised NPD process in response
- A customised NPD process to deal with the identified contingency is outlined. Contingency management processes and components outlined with clearly identified mitigation strategies
- References and presentation (10 marks)
- Appropriate references includes
- academic references
- “white papers” or reports
- Examples drawn from real world examples.
- Report is well written and logical.
|Task||Marking guide. This column indicates what marks will be awarded for. Total marks are at the bottom of each section.||Comments|
|Preliminary notes||Note that – in some products certain elements, such as product architecture may be difficult to discuss in depth. . The aim is to demonstrate a clear understanding of the theory / reasons for each step and then apply. A wide discussion followed by simple application where there is little application will achieve this. However, please note: Where this is an issue for the product you must discuss with the lecturer on what will be an acceptable level of application. Individual marks per criteria are not given. This will depend on the product/service. The emphasis required should be discussed with your lecturer and will be based on the particular product / service.|
|Develop a new product, or, an innovation of an existing product, describe the product, evaluate the opportunity, test the market and evaluate the tools and risks||New product identified and described clearly.Ideation process is described The screening process is clearly set out with criteria usedProduct opportunity is clearly described and explained. Core elements describedAugmentation describedCompeting products are identified and contrasted with this productMarket testing process is clearly set out.Identify and evaluate two best practices for each of the ideation and market testing.Tools used for the ideation, brainstorming and product evaluation are identified and evaluated. One significant risk is identified from product evaluation, quantified and a risk management technique proposed. 15 MARKS|
|Develop your product architecture||Two tools are identified and evaluated which are applicable to this product. Functional diagram is complete and coherent and identifies key functionsChunking diagram is completed Modular or integral architecture is explained and related to the chunking diagramTwo Best practices are described and related to the process used.Risks are identified and quantified in relation to the choice of modular and/or integral architecture applicable to this product. 10 MARKS|
|Prototyping||Drawings of the three prototypes, Alpha, Beta and final product. Discuss the tools used to develop the prototypes and the value of each in the NPD process. Bill of materials provided and represents realistic requirements and quantities for THE PROTOTYPE.Manufacturing process identified for The prototypesDiscuss and evaluate best practices in prototype design and manufacture for NPD and consider these in terms of your productDiscuss best practice in testing the Alpha, Beta and final prototype. Describe the methods you will use to conduct testing of these prototypes including time to complete and methods.Risks are identified, quantified and a risk management proposal included. 15 MARKS|
|The Services Blueprint covering the ancillary services required to enhance the overall usage and post-purchase evaluation experience for your buyers (consumer/customers/clients) OR Services (NPD) for a new service if approved by the lecturer.||Discuss and critique the process of service blueprint development and current best practices.Develop a services blueprint for the new service.Identify how best practices has informed the development of your blueprint. Identify, quantify and propose a risk management strategy for the risks associated with the development and/or implementation of a service blueprint for this service. 15 MARKS|
|The Financial Model and analysis||Model provided in ExcelRealistic costings are provided for all prototype and for ramp up and production.Break even analysis is shown.Start up working capital is calculated. Two sensitivity analysis elements are identified and analysed with discussion of the risks.Discuss the importance and best practices in financial modelling of New product development as start-ups including forecasting, statements, benchmarking and KPI’s 15 MARKS|
|Innovation management||Discuss the principles of innovation management, best practices in innovation management and relate to the development of your product. Create a table that identifies the steps in your NPD. For each step set out the issues that may arise and how these will be managed. 10 MARKS|
|NPD CONTINENCY CUSTOMISATION||A particular contingency is identified. This should be substantial or more than one as necessary to demonstrate the design of a customised NPD process in response A customised NPD process to deal with the identified contingency is outlined. Contingency management processes and components outlined with clearly identified mitigation strategies 10 MARKS|
|References and presentation||Appropriate references includesacademic references“white papers” or reportsExamples drawn from real world examples.Report is well written and logical. 10 MARKS|
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