Table of Contents
1 Question 1 – Introduction (1000 words) 3
1.1 Container Port: Concept(s), History, and Handling characteristics. 3
1.2 General Port (General cargo port): Concept(s), History, and Handling characteristics. 3
1.3 Tanker Port: Concept(s), History, and Handling characteristics. 4
1 Question 1 – Introduction (1000 words)
Ports have progressed from becoming a point of transit for passengers and goods among ships as well as the coast to an “essential supply chain” or a “natural target for regional growth and job initiatives.”(Formentin, (2017). A port serves as a dynamic network hub for regional growth, allowing projects such as creativity, cluster creation, community engagement, environmental conservation, and attempts to improve social capital to decompose ( Becker et al, 2018). Numerous convergent research topics, like port functions and tactics, port preparation and growth, and port efficiency, emerged in coastal studies in the sense of supply chain, shipping, and countryside development.
In this report, we have explained three different ports that are Container port, General port and Tanker port. Along with that, it’s all concepts, history and handling characteristics are explained in a well-defined format for a better understanding of the reader.
1.1 Container Port: Concept(s), History, and Handling characteristics
The container port, also known as the container terminal, is indeed a location where freight containers being transshipped between various modes of shipping for further travel. If the shipping is between cargo ships to land vehicles, such as trucks or trains, the port is known as a marine container port. (Black et al, 2018). Conversely, the transhipment could take place among land vehicles, such as a rail and a truck, wherein situation the terminal would be referred to as an offshore container port.
The Pennsylvania Transportation company launched the first port facilities in Enola, Pennsylvania, in November 1932. It was the worlds first intermodal freight terminal, Port Newark-Elizabeth is located on Newark Bay in Port of New York and New Jersey. The Perfect X was designed after an experiment in Port Newark on April 26, 1956, for using standardised freight containers which were packed and afterwards unloaded to the compatible flatbed truck. A McLean Trucking Company was the one that came up with the idea(Kaliszewski, et al, 2020). The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey founded the world’s first cargo port, Elizabeth Marine Terminal, on August 15, 1962.
All inland and marine container terminals typically provide holding facilities both for filled and bare containers. Holstered containers can be preserved for extended periods anticipating the next use, while loaded shipments being stored for comparatively brief periods while anticipating onward transportation. Package stacks are created when containers are packed for storage.
1.2 General Port (General cargo port): Concept(s), History, and Handling characteristics
Chemicals, vegetables, clothing, equipment, the motor including military vehicles, boots, and garments are among the products transported by general container ships. Container ships are freight ships that containerize their entire cargo by transporting it in truck-size bulk cargo. These are a popular mode of industrial intermodal freight, yet they still transport the majority of non-bulk freight that travels by sea (Mao et al, 2019). The capacity of a cargo vessel is estimated in twenty-foot units produced. Tankers transport fuel and other liquid cargo.
Coal, flour, ore, and other related materials are transported through loose form by dry container vessels. Multi-purpose vessels, even as the term implies, transport various types of freight at the same time, such as liquid and common cargo.
History of palaeontology indicates that the practice was prevalent by the first millennium BC, that the tiny Mediterranean merchant ships such as the 50 foot long from 15–16 metre. Uluburun ship had been carrying 20 tonnes of unusual cargo, including 11 tonnes of raw copper, pots, crystal, ivory, gold, cloves, and artifacts from Australia, Egypt and Canaan.
During Middle Ages, advances in ship construction were inspired by the need to run trading routes across longer distances and throughout more periods of the year. Before the middle of the nineteenth century, the prevalence of piracy caused most merchant ships to be armed, often strongly, like in the situation of the Manila galleons and East Indiamen. They were occasionally accompanied by warships as well.
Tank ships and bulk carriers are examples of specialised freight vessels. Container ships among all sizes are technically container ships, but they are generally recognized as a distinct type. Cargo ships are further divided into two divisions types of services that provide to an industry that is liner and tramp services (Sakalayen et al, 2017). These liners operate on a predetermined timetable with predetermined tariff prices. Tramp ships don’t operate on a set date. Users hire them to transport cargo. Tramp ships are mostly operated by smaller shipping firms and private individuals. The shipping firms publish predetermined schedules for cargo liners. A voyage is a name given to any trip taken by a cruise liner. Liners mostly transport general freight. Any freight liners, however, can also transport passengers.
1.3 Tanker Port: Concept(s), History, and Handling characteristics
Crude oil, refined goods, liquefied coal, additives, vegetable oils, treacle, freshwater, even wine are among the liquid bulk cargoes carried by tanker vessels which include gas carriers, petroleum products carriers, material tankers, including chemical tankers.
The T2 tanker, in particular, was crucial in World War II. The T2-SE-A1 was perhaps the most common version, with approximately 500 constructed during the war. This has a capability of 16,613 long tonnes of deadweight. In small ports and close to the sea, a small T1 tanker has been used. A Ship oiler was used on the larger T3 Tanker (Ducruet et al, 2021). These storage tanks were used extensively for years after the war, and many of them were exported to the foreign market. The Global Scale was adopted at this period to assess freight tariffs.
Storage tanks were built to be able to maneuver the Suez Canal till 1956. Since the canal was closed mostly during the 1956 Suez Crisis, such a size limit became far less of a concern. ( Hashimonto, 2020). When forced to bring oil across the Cape of Good Hope, shipping companies discovered that larger tankers were the way to go.
Tankers transporting dangerous cargo ships such as LNG, LPG, refined oil products, and crude are heavily monitored as a result of the energy production process due to the unpredictability of these shipments and their significant environmental effects.
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- Kaliszewski, A., Kozłowski, A., Dąbrowski, J., & Klimek, H. (2020). Key factors of container port competitiveness: A global shipping lines perspective. Marine Policy, 117, 103896.
- Formentin, G. (2017). Estimating the dispersion of shipping emissions from Fremantle port, Western Australia (Doctoral dissertation, Murdoch University).
- Becker, A., Ng, A. K., McEvoy, D., & Mullett, J. (2018). Implications of climate change for shipping: Ports and supply chains. Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change, 9(2), e508.
- Hashimoto, S. (2020). A New Idea for LNG Trade: Enhancing Market Competition through a Tanker-Based Trading System. Journal of Asian Energy Studies, 4(1), 9-19.
- Bonham, C., Noyvirt, A., Tsalamanis, I., & Williams, S. (2018). Analysing port and shipping operations using big data. Data Science Campus, ONS.
- Mao, L. I., & Shibin, Z. H. A. N. G. (2019). Discussion on the Benefits of Port and Shipping Enterprises Based on Game Theory. American Journal of Educational Research and Reviews, 4, 57-57.
- Ducruet, C., & Itoh, H. (2021). Introduction to the global container shipping market. In Global Logistics Network Modelling and Policy (pp. 3-30). Elsevier.
- Sakalayen, Q., Chen, P. S. L., & Cahoon, S. (2017). The strategic role of ports in regional development: conceptualising the experience from Australia. Maritime Policy & Management, 44(8), 933-955.
- Chang, Y. T., & Lee, P. T. W. (2019). Goss and ensuing research in shipping and port. International Journal of Shipping and Transport Logistics, 11(5), 390-404.
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