The effects of age of acquisition and the emotional nature of words in lexical access Assignment Solved

The effects of age of acquisition and the emotional nature of words in lexical access

Abstract

The research was aimed at knowing the effects of age of acquisition and the emotional nature of words in lexical access. Age of acquisition is known as the concept that refers to the abilities and ideas that have been discovered. The managing of early language words has the benefit over pace and precision. Lexical processing is calculated as the mutable to ascertain in both the first and second languages. Two types of variables named dependent variable and independent variable were used considering the factors. The dependent variables in this research are letter strings, different categories of words such as EE, ENE, LE, and LNE, developmental dataset, and vocabulary to define and learn different words. The independent variables in the study are simulation exercises, trials, amount of noise in the environment, length, and complexity of learning words, several times participants follow repetition of words, frequency of use of hearing aids, visual effects, memory, appearance, and treatment with participants. The experimental research was followed in the research to study the adherence to scientific research design. Data from 104 participants were rejected as they either did not complete the task, or their accuracy was less than 80%. Therefore, the final sample size was 375. The study resulted in that the ANOVA has a significant effect on the age of acquisition of words.

Background

The age of acquisition is the concept that refers to the skills and concepts that have been learned. The processing of early language words has an advantage over speed and accuracy. Lexical processing is counted as the variable to determine in both the first and second languages. Empirical evidence has the link to support the effect of learners on different languages. The second language is known as the factor to build a correlation with language proficiencies in a more natural way. However, from different researches, it has been proven that several factors affect language experience depending upon the quality and quantity of language input. There are long-term benefits that have been observed to have confirmation of evidence. There is a great difference that has been observed as the factor to understand neural processing patterns for different language styles. On the other hand, the independent variables in the study are simulation exercises, amount of noise in the environment, learning words, several times participants see a repetition of phrases, the incidence of use of examination aids, graphic effects, recollection, arrival, and treatment with participants. The intermediate age of acquisition of words is classified into regular and irregular words such as Regular: pen, three, red, man, and, cat, cake, white, boy, long, peach, nice, green, nine, deer. Irregular: eye, pink, chick, apple, bear, head, too, water, four, real, ball, tea, mouth, ear, foot. The intermediate age of acquisition of words includes Regular: bell, bench, bake, feed, lake, brave, rich, milk, river, kill, cost, voice, time, tree, boat. Irregular: fear, seat, autumn, laugh, read, clever, most, allow, alien, extra, area, angry, copy, meter, cow. The late age of acquisition of words includes Regular: solid, shade, victory, paint, dust, insist, recite, fortune, candy, quote, predict, bite, employ, mark, chat. Irregular: harmony, editor, glimpse, elect, source, poem, wound, arrival, basis, require, false, ignore, supply, sample, advise.

Introduction

Several techniques have been followed to take advantage of capturing the milestone level of neural activities that respond in different manners as seen in experiments. The electrophysical brain responds to the person differently to reflect lexical, post-lexical, and pre-lexical locus of effect as well as semantic, orthographic, or phonological nature. Age of acquisition is the variable that activates a time window, also it is inferred that it can correspond to certain language processes. From neurocognitive research, it has been detected that the age of acquisition is related to neuronal changes in language processing. Learning of language one after language two tends to modify the structure of the brain in a dependant manner. After, the second language is associated with the thickening of the cortex in the right inferior frontal gyrus. Several approaches are found to be proposed that have phonological completeness that is learned early and the words that are learned holistically are set in a mind in a fragmented manner. The order of acquisition defines the speed and efficiency in semantic activation. Thus, the early learned concepts are easier to access than late learned concepts.

The brain responds in different patterns by polarities, amplitudes, latencies, and topologies of event-related potentials. The variables define the calculation and measurement of experiments in these studies. It is commonly found that independent variables different categories of words such as early acquiring emotional words, early acquiring non-emotional words, late acquiring emotional words and late acquiring non-emotional words, developmental dataset, and vocabulary to define and learn different words. However, phonological completeness and semantic locus account not to predict the effects of the second language on syntactic, phonological, and semantic processing. The theories also claim that the age of acquisition effect reflects the arbitrary nature of mapping between input that is orthography and output that is sematic or phonological nature representations formed during the development of a lexical network.

Aim

The research aims to know the effects of age of acquisition and the emotional nature of words in lexical access.

Hypothesis

The hypothesis is the proposed understanding and statement for a phenomenon that is used to make a provisional idea on which the estimation can be measured. The method was used in research to propose the hypothesis based on research that the ANOVA can reveal a significant effect of age of acquisition of words.

Variables

A variable is something that is used to define the quality and quantity of the subject. The variables of the statement are somewhat difficult to identify and need a deep idea of the experiment as what must be done in this research. There are two types of the variable named dependent variable and independent variable.

Dependent variables

The dependent variable is the variable on which the researcher is interested in. The changes in research which happen are there points that the researcher is trying to measure all with different techniques. The variable is the ability to define the research and its characteristics involving different parameters. The dependent variables in this research are letter strings, different categories of words such as early acquiring emotional words (EE), early acquiring non-emotional words (ENE), late acquiring emotional words (LE) and late acquiring non-emotional words (LNE), developmental dataset, and vocabulary to define and learn different words.

Independent variables

Independent variables are the factors that are believed to be the affecting dependent variable to a different extent. The variable allows us to see the manipulation that is seen from dependent variable changes. The dependent variable is believed to be dependent on the independent variable. The independent variables in the study are simulation exercises, trials, amount of noise in the environment, length, and complexity of learning words, several times participants follow repetition of words, frequency of use of hearing aids, visual effects, memory, appearance, and treatment with participants. These are the variables that will have a direct effect on the performance of participants.

Method

The experimental research will be followed to study the adherence to scientific research design. The study included the hypothesis as the ANOVA can reveal a significant effect of age of acquisition of words. This is the proposed statement that has been given at the starting of a research project to know whether the assumption complied with the statement or not. Assumption, calculation, comparison of the research will all be done on this. The controlled environment was followed to do this experimental research interestingly. The data will be collected, and results would be declared to either support or reject the hypothesis. The hypothesis testing method was used to compare and analyze the results. The purpose of this research would be to determine the relationship between two different variables that are dependant and independent variables. The completion of this research study will present the correlation between a specific aspect of an entity and the variable that is chosen in the research to study with either supporting or rejecting the hypothesis.

The data collection will be done to quantify or measure the data. The data in this research would be in the form of recording the results of the participants. The sets of letter strings will be used in the experiment such as words and nonwords. The stimuli will be of 3 to 8 characters long.The type of observation will help supplement the measurements taken throughout the experiment. Hence, the experiment will be done in a controlled manner to know how one thing affects another. This method of research will be the best to continue with the experiment because it will collect the existing behavior analysis for measurement. The contact of experts and databases will be included in the content area.

Participants

A total of 479 undergraduate students from Western Sydney University were recruited via convenience sampling and participated in a study investigating the effects of age of acquisition and the emotional nature of words in lexical access. Participation was completed voluntarily as part of an assessment task. Data from 104 participants were rejected as they either did not complete the task, or their accuracy was less than 80%. Therefore, the final sample size was 375.

Materials and Apparatus

Two sets of letter strings were used in the experiment: words and nonwords. All the stimuli were 3 to 8 characters long. There were 4 categories of words: early acquiring emotional words (EE), early acquiring non-emotional words (ENE), late acquiring emotional words (LE), and late acquiring non-emotional words (LNE). A total of 40 words in each category were used. Early acquiring words were acquired before 5 years of age and late acquiring words were acquired after 7 years of age. The word stimuli were taken from the normative developmental dataset for emotional vocabulary comprehension (Baron-Cohen, Golan, Wheelwright, Granader, & Hill, 2010). The nonwords were selected from the ARC nonword database (Rastle, Harrington, & Coltheart, 2002). A total of 120 nonwords were used.

The stimuli were presented in a dual lexical decision task where two-letter strings were presented on the screen. For half of the trials (80), both the strings were words and for the remaining half (80) either one or both of the letter strings were nonwords. When both the strings were words, they belonged to the same category of words (EE, ENE, LE, LNE). There were 20 trials for each category of words.

Procedure

Participants were tested in the classroom during their tutorial. They were instructed to tap the left side of the screen if both the letter strings they saw were words and to tap the right side of the screen if any of the letter strings were nonwords. Each trial started with a fixation cross; 500 ms after the fixation cross two-letter strings were presented on the screen. The trial ended after the participant made a response. If there was no response made by the participant within 3 seconds after the stimulus presentation, the trial was terminated. The inter-trial interval was 1 second. Feedback was provided for incorrect trials. The trials were presented in a random order for each participant. Stimulus presentation and response collection was controlled by Presentation Mobile App (Neurobehavioral Systems Inc., CA, USA) running on the participants’ mobile device (iOS or Android). The experiment took 5-10 minutes to complete. The accuracy and response time was calculated. Reaction time (RT) data from participants who had an accuracy of 80% or more were further analyzed.

Results

The assumption of normality was met for the reaction time data. A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was computed with the factors age of acquisition of words (early, late) and the emotional nature of the words (emotional, non-emotional). The ANOVA revealed a significant effect of age of acquisition of words F(1, 374) = 669.58, p< .05. Early acquiring words were accessed significantly faster (Mean RT = 837.52 ms, SE = 7.36) than late acquiring words (Mean RT = 961.49 ms, SE = 9.20). The effect of emotional nature of the words was also significant F(1, 374) = 18.53, p< .05. Emotional words were accessed significantly faster (Mean RT = 890.56 ms, SE = 8.44) than non-emotional words (Mean RT = 908.45 ms, SE = 8.04). The interaction between the age of acquisition and emotional nature of words was not significant F(1, 374) = 0.40, p> .05, suggesting that the effect of emotional nature of words was similar for both early and late acquiring words.

References

Ferré, P., Anglada-Tort, M., & Guasch, M. (2018). Processing of emotional words in bilinguals: Testing the effects of word concreteness, task type and language status. Second Language Research34(3), 371-394. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0267658317744008

Hollis, G., Westbury, C., & Lefsrud, L. (2017). Extrapolating human judgments from skip-gram vector representations of word meaning. Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology70(8), 1603-1619. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1080/17470218.2016.1195417

Mergen, F., & Kuruoglu, G. (2017). A comparison of Turkish-English bilinguals’ processing of emotion words in their two languages. Eurasian Journal of Applied Linguistics3(2), 89-98. https://doi.org/10.32601/ejal.460969

Stadthagen-González, H., Ferré, P., Pérez-Sánchez, M. A., Imbault, C., & Hinojosa, J. A. (2018). Norms for 10,491 Spanish words for five discrete emotions: Happiness, disgust, anger, fear, and sadness. Behavior Research Methods50(5), 1943-1952. https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758/s13428-017-0962-y

Order Now

Get solved or fresh solution on The effects of age of acquisition and the emotional nature of words in lexical access Assignment and many more. 24X7 help, plag free solution. Order online now!

Universal Assignment (October 2, 2022) The effects of age of acquisition and the emotional nature of words in lexical access Assignment Solved. Retrieved from https://universalassignment.com/the-effects-of-age-of-acquisition-and-the-emotional-nature-of-words-in-lexical-access-assignment-solved/.
"The effects of age of acquisition and the emotional nature of words in lexical access Assignment Solved." Universal Assignment - October 2, 2022, https://universalassignment.com/the-effects-of-age-of-acquisition-and-the-emotional-nature-of-words-in-lexical-access-assignment-solved/
Universal Assignment July 24, 2022 The effects of age of acquisition and the emotional nature of words in lexical access Assignment Solved., viewed October 2, 2022,<https://universalassignment.com/the-effects-of-age-of-acquisition-and-the-emotional-nature-of-words-in-lexical-access-assignment-solved/>
Universal Assignment - The effects of age of acquisition and the emotional nature of words in lexical access Assignment Solved. [Internet]. [Accessed October 2, 2022]. Available from: https://universalassignment.com/the-effects-of-age-of-acquisition-and-the-emotional-nature-of-words-in-lexical-access-assignment-solved/
"The effects of age of acquisition and the emotional nature of words in lexical access Assignment Solved." Universal Assignment - Accessed October 2, 2022. https://universalassignment.com/the-effects-of-age-of-acquisition-and-the-emotional-nature-of-words-in-lexical-access-assignment-solved/
"The effects of age of acquisition and the emotional nature of words in lexical access Assignment Solved." Universal Assignment [Online]. Available: https://universalassignment.com/the-effects-of-age-of-acquisition-and-the-emotional-nature-of-words-in-lexical-access-assignment-solved/. [Accessed: October 2, 2022]

Please note along with our service, we will provide you with the following deliverables:

Please do not hesitate to put forward any queries regarding the service provision.

We look forward to having you on board with us.

Get 45%* OFF on Assignment Help

Most Frequent Questions & Answers

Universal Assignment Services is the best place to get help in your all kind of assignment help. We have 172+ experts available, who can help you to get HD+ grades. We also provide Free Plag report, Free Revisions at a Pocket Friendly cost, We offer Best Price in the industry guaranteed.

We provide all kinds of assignmednt help, Report writing, Essay Writing, Dissertations, Thesis writing, Research Proposal, Research Report, Home work help, Question Answers help, Case studies, mathematical and Statistical tasks, Website development, Android application, Resume/CV writing, SOP(Statement of Purpose) Writing, Blog/Article, Poster making and so on.

We are available round the clock, 24X7, 365 days. You can appach us to our Whatsapp number +1 (613)778 8542 or email to info@universalassignment.com . We provide Free revision policy, if you need and revisions to be done on the task, we will do the same for you as soon as possible.

We provide services mainly to all major institutes and Universities in Australia, Canada, China, Malaysia, India, South Africa, New Zealand, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

We provide lucrative discounts from 28% to 70% as per the wordcount, Technicality, Deadline and the number of your previous assignments done with us.

After your assignment request our team will check and update you the best suitable service for you alongwith the charges for the task. After confirmation and payment team will start the work and provide the task as per the deadline.

Yes, we will provide Plagirism free task and a free turnitin report along with the task without any extra cost.

No, if the main requirement is same, you don’t have to pay any additional amount. But it there is a additional requirement, then you have to pay the balance amount in order to get the revised solution.

The Fees are as minimum as $10 per page(1 page=250 words) and in case of a big task, we provide huge discounts.

We accept all the major Credit and Debit Cards for the payment. We do accept Paypal also.

Popular Assignments

Plant Production System Assignment Help

The Best Instant Academic Assistance Online Instant Plant Production System Assignment Help for Students Plant production system assignment help students help them understand the various theoretical and practical aspects of the subject. It is an intensive study of the scientific methods of plant production for an effective and economized production

Read More »

Integrated Science Assignment Help to Boost your Grades Immediately

Integrated Science Assignment Help for Students Integrated Science is taught from a high-school level. This consists of an investigative study of physics, chemistry, biology, forensic science, biotechnology, and geology. This is a course that introduces young students to the interconnectedness between all the scientific knowledge. Students require integrated science assignment

Read More »

Top Human Biology Assignment Help from Experts

Ask an Expert for top Human Biology Assignment Help Sometimes, expert guidance with Human Biology assignment help is all you need in order to boost your grades. Universal Assignment Help Service is a top-ranking student-help platform that offers a wide range of services for students. Students can order human biology

Read More »

Aviation Assignment Help from Experts

The Most Trusted Guidance for Students Aviation Assignment Help for All Challenging Problems Aviation assignment help online from the greatest experts can relieve student pressure to a great extent. It is well known that aviation is an extremely challenging stream, as it is, and students have to keep too many

Read More »

Growing demand for Assignment Help in Ireland

The number of multinational corporations choosing Ireland as their regional headquarters is increasing. So more and more students are choosing Ireland as an idle place to take their degrees. But studying in universities and keeping up the pace is not an easy task and getting good marks is not enough

Read More »

Board appraisal report

Weight: 40% Format: 2,000-word written report. Note: All written assessments should be submitted as Word files (.docx) (Word is available from your AIB Office 365 account) Summary Write a 2000-word Board Appraisal Report where you will evaluate an organisation’s corporate governance practices, board structure including committees and board diversity against

Read More »

49102: Traffic and Transportation

Assignment 2: Transport Modelling and Operations Due: 7 October 2022 This is an individual assignment Please answer the following questions and present your work in a report format clearly including your name and student ID on the cover page. Submit a PDF of your report into the Assignment Activity shown

Read More »

ENV3105 Hydrology Assignment 2

Assignment 2 Due date:       04 October 2022 Weighting:   25% (250 marks) 1. Overview This assessment is designed to test your achievement of selected learning objectives of Modules 6 to 9. In particular, the assignment involves estimation of urban design discharges, reservoir routing and water balance. It is intended to reinforce and

Read More »

Assessment 1: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Guide abstract All cells within the body are bathed in a fluid. The composition of this fluid is tightly regulated to contain specific levels of various ions. Disruption in the balance of these ions can lead to cell death and damaging inflammation. However, standard surgical practice fails to consider these

Read More »

Project 2: Assignment on Scheme

Due: Oct 1, before midnight. This document first provides the aims of this project. It then lists the requirements as explicitly as possible. It then hints at how these requirements can be met. Finally, it describes how it can be submitted. Aims The aims of this project are as follows:

Read More »

Analysis of Rube Goldberg machine

Week 5 homework for tutorial  In week 4 we needed to also look at how many failures we could have to meet our six sigma level – we will also need to look at this for the times for each stage and total time. To effectively put the flame out

Read More »

PROCESS AND PHILOSOPHY OF ENGINEERING

ASSESSMENT BRIEF 3: Calculations Summary Title Calculations Due Date Monday the 3rd of October at 11:59 (NSW) AEST – End of Week 5 Length 1000-word (does not include equations, charts, graphs or tables) Weighting  35% Submission  WORD document submitted to Turnitin Unit Learning Outcomes  ULO 3: apply basic statistical analysis

Read More »

THT3114 Research Proposal

Mini Report Assignment 2 Executive Summary (100- 150 words) This is the summary of your research and thus needs to be completed after you have completed writing your research proposal. This is not counted towards the word count. Mention the key aspects of the research proposal. Separate paragraphs Area of

Read More »

LITERATURE REVIEW – DATA MINING TO RESEARCH PROPOSAL

ASSESSMENT TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW – DATA MINING TO RESEARCH PROPOSAL – DESIGN RESEARCH INSTRUMENT – PRESENTATION) Task Length: Mini Report (750 words) – Research Proposal) Presentation – Not more than 15 Slides –  (Templates Provided for both the mini report and presentation)  Duration of the Video Presentation – Not more

Read More »

Assignment on COVID-19 pandemic in the hospitality industry

Exploring the new health and safety innovative business practice to restore consumer confidence in the COVID-19 pandemic in the hospitality industry Task Length: Report – 2000 words (+-10%) Task Type Individual Due week and submission deadline Week 11 – SUNDAY – 02/10/2022 – 23:59 Value 40%   PART A: On

Read More »

Assignment Help in Israel

Leading assignments help in Israel Israel is known for its high-tech development, innovations, and entrepreneurship, and is home to the best start-ups in the world. Students from all over the world are drawn to this ecosystem of “innovation and development,” which is supported by a robust higher education system with

Read More »

Animal Production System Assignment Help

Animal Production System Assignment Help: Get 100% guaranteed Expert Assistance Immediately Where can you find the best Animal Production System Assignment Help Online?  Animal Production System assignment help online can boost student results while encouraging interest in the field. The hectic schedule of students, along with their burden of various

Read More »

Immediate Calculus Assignment Help from Top Experts

Immediate Calculus Assignment Help from Top Experts Calculus Assignment Help to Boost your Grades Students can now order instant Calculus assignment help on Universal Assignment Help Service in a fast and easy way. Calculus in taught at a slightly advanced stage of school, and can be an exciting subject in

Read More »

Mathematics Foundation Assignment Help

Effective Mathematics Foundation Assignment Help for Students: Order Expert Solutions Immediately Mathematics Foundation Assignment Help for Students Students often require mathematics foundation assignment help for clearing doubts, understanding the derivation of a formula or theorem, or getting urgent solutions to certain mathematical problems. Online mathematics foundation assignment help is extremely

Read More »

Mathematics Application Assignment Help

Top for Students: Order Expert Solutions Immediately for the Best Results Why do students need Mathematics Application Assignment Help? Mathematics Application assignment help can lead students to perform excellently in the subject in a convenient and relaxed way. Many students find it difficult to apply theoretical knowledge in large and

Read More »

The finest assignment helps in Saudi Arabia

Many students dream to study in Saudi Arabia as they offer some of the best facilities, and they boast one of the most spectacular and rapidly expanding higher education systems in the Middle East. So, this should be of no surprise that every year, many international students prefer to register

Read More »

Expert Solutions for the Best Arithmetic Assignment Help Online

Instant Arithmetic Assignment Help for Students Students most often require Arithmetic assignment help online to solve various calculations. Universal Assignment Help Service provides the best solutions to all arithmetic problems for each student. Students simply have to upload their assignment guidelines on their website, and a customized and accurate assignment

Read More »

Assignment help in Cameroon

The Necessity of Assignment help in Cameroon Today management degrees are one of the most prestigious degrees out there and gaining immense popularity, this degree has the most demand in the market as new startups are emerging day by day, and every company needs the best people to run their

Read More »

Assignment Help in South Korea

Difference between a Good vs Great Online Assignment Tutor The e-learning market is growing at a fast rate due to digitalization. This fact causes an increment in the demand for online tutors as students worldwide searches for a suitable solution for online assignment help in South Korea. You might hear

Read More »

Assignment Help in Japan

Outside-The-Classroom Learning Opportunities It is a typical thinking lesson that stands inside the four walls of a classroom. Some educators say the classroom is the abode of learning and knowledge. We cannot prove these statements wrong. However, one thing is certain: they are partially correct. Learning of concepts starts in

Read More »

Assignment Help in Brazil

Why do Students Consider Online Assignment Help in 2022? Academic life is full of ups and downs. Students who experience such a phase struggle to maintain the equilibrium between personal and professional life. It is because of the load of homework, exams, and participation in extracurricular activities. These events cause

Read More »

Assignment Help in Taiwan

What are the Necessities of Assignment Guidance for Students? As technology takes a new turn around, homework assignments become lengthy and complex. This academic work needs lots of core subject knowledge along with proper research to finish it with proper care. Such work is very time-consuming and hectic for the

Read More »

Assignment Help in Hong Kong

Can You Achieve High Academic Results? Every student wishes to get top scores in their exams. Yet it does not happen if you do not get the correct assignment help in Hong Kong from an online tutor. Such support is in the form of tips, advice, hacks, or taking guidance,

Read More »

VU22977 – Practice in a Legal Environment

Advanced Diploma of Legal Practice – 22565VIC PORTFOLIO- CLIENT MATTER FILE Assessment task 1 Prepare a comprehensive portfolio of documents to create a Client Matter File which must include: Element 1 Area of law Cover sheet stating client name and short description of legal matter Client Instruction Sheet, Costs Agreement

Read More »

KIT714 ICT Research Principles: Assignment 1

Practical Qualitative Research Exercise                                                                                                                                         Type:                 In-Semester, Individual Assignment Task Length:   minimum 2,000 words Weighting:     20% of total assessment for this unit Due Date:       Friday 5 August 2022 – 11:55 pm (Week05) Submission:    electronic submission on MyLO (WORD or PDF) Description:    This practical exercise will engage students in a qualitative research

Read More »

Can't Find Your Assignment?

Get Free Assignment

Open chat
1
Free Assistance
Universal Assignment
Hello 👋
How can we help you?