The term Biotechnology was coined by Hungarian engineer Karl ereky in in 1919. It is a diverse field that involves either working with living cells or using molecules derived from them in order to make various techniques. It has revolutionized diagnostics and therapeutics to detect various deadly diseases like AIDS, EBOLA. Biotechnology is the use of an organism or some biological system to make a product. Biotechnology is a board discipline in which biological processes , organisms,cells or cellular components are exploited to develop new technologies . New products, and biological techniques developed by biotechnologist are useful in clinics, research centers, industries and agriculture. Basically, Biotechnology is the technology used in biosystems.
It will be more clear with the help of examples:
1. Penicillin – Than antibiotic penicillin is generated by certain molds. In order to make make small amount of penicillin used for clinical trials so that has to make more. The process has been improved since then with the use of higher-producing mold strains.
2. Gene Therapy- It is an emerging technique used to treat genetic disorders that are caused by a nonfunctional gene. It works by delivering “missing gene’s DNA i.e by altering DNA.
Why is Biotechnology important especially in Today’s era?
Biotechnology is particularly important in the field of medicine, where it facilitates the production of therapeutic proteins and other drugs. For instance, synthetic insulin and synthetic hormone and various diagnostic tests to detect deadly diseases. Moreover, Biotechnology also helps in refining industrial process,in environmental cleanup and in agricultural production.
Applications of Biotechnology-
Biotechnology has numerous applications, particularly in medicine and agriculture. Like the way the use of Biotechnology in merging biological information with computer technology(Bioinformatics), exploring the use of microscopic equipment that enters in the human body and then how can we forget about stem cell research and cloning to replace dead cells. In addition to being used in health care, Biotechnology has proved helpful in the refining process through the discovery and production of biological enzymes. For environmental cleanup, with enzymes that digest contaminants and promote eco-friendly environment through genetic engineering.
The technology used in agriculture is GMO [Genetically Modifies Organisms] ; GMO crops are grown and often sold in the United States. GMO is any organism whose genetic material has been altered using genetic engineering techniques. Creating a GMO is a multistep process, genetic engineers must isolate the gene they wish to insert into the host organism and combine it with other genetic elements. CRISPR has made the production of GMO simpler.
Golden Rice is one example of GMO.
Biotechnology is a boon to the country’s development. It has various applications i.e in the animal husbandry industry, in textile industries, works for human health and welfare, giving contributes to our environment. There are many more researches and investigation processes carried out for improving future technologies. Additionally, biotechnology is one such way to overcome the COVID-19 pandemic. Biotechnology, as well as biotechnologist both, are the ways for the development of society.