Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication

Assignment 1

  1. A. Briefly explain how the leading and lagging strands of DNA are synthesized during DNA replication. (10 marks)
  2. What is the function of each of the following? (2 marks each, 10 marks total)
    • Primase
    • Helicase
    • Nucleases
    • Histones
    • Poly(A) tail
  3. What would be the complementary strand of the following portion of DNA: 3’AACCGTAATTCG5’? (2 marks)
  4. Using the following mRNA sequence, provide a definition and an example of each of the following mutations: silent, nonsense, missense, and frameshift mutation. (3 marks each, total 12 marks)


  • Summarize how a mature mRNA is made from the primary mRNA transcript. (6 marks)
  • Answer the following two questions: (8 marks total)
  • Describe the central dogma of molecular biology. (2 marks)
  • Give 3 reasons why proteins are not made directly from DNA. (Hint: Consider disadvantages of using DNA directly, and/or advantages of not using DNA directly). (6 marks)
  • Compare and contrast the following which are involved in transcription in Eukaryotes: (4 marks each, 12 marks total)
  • Promoter proximal elements and promoter
  • Enhancers and silencers
  • Regulatory transcription factors and co-activators
  • How can one gene code for more than one protein? (2 marks)
  • Describe the four levels of chromatin structure and explain how chromatin is decondensed to allow transcription. (10 marks)
  • Compare and contrast dideoxy DNA sequencing and Southern blotting with respect to procedure and purpose. (8 marks)

Assignment 2.

  • You are studying a cell which, before the S phase of the cell cycle, has 8 chromosomes and 1.2 picograms (1.2 × 1012 grams) of DNA. Complete the following table with the expected number of chromosomes, chromatids, and homologous pairs, and the amount of DNA in each area or pole of the spindle at each of the stages indicated. (1/2 mark per box, 10 marks total)
 ChromosomesChromatidsHomologous pairsDNA amount
Prophase (Mitosis)81642.4 picograms
Anaphase (Mitosis)8841.2 picograms
Prophase I (Meiosis)81642.4 picograms
Anaphase I (Meiosis)4801.2 picograms
Anaphase II (Meiosis)4400.6 picograms

Including examples, compare and contrast the following: (4 marks each; 16 marks total)

  • Genotype and phenotype
  • Codominance and epistasis
  • Crossing-over and independent assortment
  • Non-disjunction and translocation

A particular type of pond organism usually reproduces asexually. However, in later summer and as winter approaches it tends to reproduce sexually. Explain why this organism would use two different methods of reproduction at different times of the year. (6 marks)

Alternation of generation is the concept whereby certain living organisms are capable of multiplying either through sexual or asexual mode. Sexual reproduction is defined as the production of sex gametes (formed as a result of meiosis), and its fusion, whereas, in asexual reproduction, the life cycle is through spores that are formed as a result of mitosis. In the pond, the organism normally reproduces through asexual reproduction mainly to increase the number of individuals, as the condition would be favouring their growth.

The same organism reproduces through asexual means mainly to climatic conditions and other external characteristics including the availability of foods. Under such extremes of condition, the organism switches to the sexual mode of reproduction allowing the crossing-over of genes that genetically produce offspring that are significantly different and far more superior than the wildtype that is better adapted to face the harsher environment. It is for this reason that the organism in the pond that once reproduced through asexual mode switched to the sexual mode of reproduction.

  • A female Drosophila (fruit fly) heterozygous for red eyes and grey body was crossed with a male homozygous for scarlet eyes and ebony body. The two genes are linked on the same chromosome. The following offspring were produced. How many map units would separate them? (Show all your work.) (4 marks)
Red eyes, grey body76
Red eyes, ebony body26
Scarlet eyes, grey body30
Scarlet eyes, ebony body68

Number of recombinants present = 26 + 30 = 56

Total number of offspring’s produced = 76 + 26 + 30 + 68 = 200

Recombination’s frequency = (total number of recombinants / complete number of offspring produced) x 100

Recombination frequency is = (56 / 200) x 100

          = 28%

The recombination frequency is considered to be equivalent to the distance between the genes. So the distance between the genes will be 28 centi morgans.

  • In a certain breed of domestic fowl, super comb is dominant to single comb but feather colour shows absence of dominance. Black legs and white legs are homozygous, whereas the heterozygote gives red legs. From crosses between birds heterozygous for both genes, what proportion of the offspring would you expect to be: (Define the alleles and show all your work using a Punnett Square.) (12 marks)

Super comb – Dominate “S”

Single comb – recessive “s”

Black leg – homozygous (BB)

White leg – homozygous (bb)

Red leg – Heterozygous (Bb)

  1. Super-combed

Super-combed = 12

  • Black-legged

Black-legged = 4

  • Red-legged

Red-legged = 8

  • Super-combed and red-legged

Super-combed and red-legged = 6

  • Single-combed and white-legged

Single-combed and white-legged = 1

Super comb black leg – 3

Super comb red leg – 6

Super comb white leg – 3

Super comb black leg – 1

Single comb red leg – 2

Single comb white leg – 1

  • A particular X-linked gene is a recessive lethal that causes death and reabsorption of the embryo at an early stage. A heterozygous female married a man expressing the dominant trait. Define the alleles and show your work in answering the following questions: (5 marks)

X-linked inheritance pertains to genes which are located exclusively inside the X-chromosome. The bulk of X-linked genetic disorders are recessive as well as affects men more than women. This really is attributable to differences in the amount of X chromosomes among men as well as women. For such a male to display the X-linked disease, just single recessive allele is required whereas females requires two. An illustration of such X-linked ailment is really the blood disease haemophilia.

X- female normal gene

xo – x-linked recessive trait

y – male normal gene

Female recessive heterozygous – Xxo

Male dominant – xo y

XX xoX y
xoxo xoxo y
  1. What proportion of their offspring would be expected to be females?

Based on the Punnet square, there is a 50 per cent chance that their offspring is female.

  1. What proportion of the offspring would be expected to be carriers of the gene?

There is a 25 per cent chance that their offspring is a carrier.

Let Xh represent the lethal gene. The mother is represented as XH Xh and the father as XH Y. Results show that there is a 25 per cent chance one (Xh Y) of their offspring’s will die, and 25% chance that one(XH Xh ) of their offspring’s is a carrier. There is also a 75 per cent chance that their offspring will live.

  • Look at the following pedigree. Circles represent females; squares represent males. Coloured circles and squares represent affected individuals. Horizontal lines represent matings; vertical lines represent offspring produced from a mating. (15 marks total)
  • What is the mode of inheritance? Referring to the applicable numbered individuals, explain your reasoning. Your choices are autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked dominant, X-linked recessive, Y-linked. (10 marks)

A dominant autosomal trait is passed on from generation to generation. Inheritance. It is indeed a dominant gene that is found on the one of the non-sex chromosomes inside this form of heredity (autosomes). This sort of condition may be caused by a single faulty gene. 50 percent of the time, the father’s genes will result in an impaired kid, whereas the other 50 percent of the time will result in an unscathed child having 2 common genes (recessive genes). Therefore it could be an inherited condition as none of the parents has impacted offspring. There are two daughters inside this lineage and only circular 5 is afflicted, thus it cannot be x-linked dominant. Each parents in squares 7 & 8 are impacted in the second generation. However, their child 12 square remains unaffected, therefore afflicted parents may produce a non-affected child. It’s impossible for this illness to be x-linked recessive since it doesn’t pass from mother through son and father into father.

  • What are the genotypes of the following individuals (be sure to define the alleles): 4, 5, 8, 11? (5 marks)

Autosomal Dominant allele, (a -normal, A-disease)

Affected Male (AA)

Affected Female (AA)

Unaffected Male (aa)

Unaffected Female (aa)


Individual 4th : aa

Individual 5th : Aa

Individual 8th : Aa

Individual 11th : Aa or AA (continued for next generation)

  • List 4 features of an ideal organism for the study of genetics. (4 marks)
  • Explain the roles of bicoid, the segmentation genes, and homeotic genes in development of an embryo. (10 marks)
  • Answer the following questions about stem cell research: (10 marks total)
  • Differentiate between multipotent, pluripotent, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Include an example of each. (5 marks)
  • Outline the advantages and disadvantages of iPS cells. (5 marks)
  • Write a short paragraph (not more than 200 words) describing the genetic disorder known as maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). In your discussion, include answers to the following questions, using your own words to write a coherent paragraph in complete sentences. Cite your sources following the citation instructions in Jan A. Pechenik’s A Short Guide to Writing about Biology(8 marks)

a. How is maple syrup urine disease inherited?

b. Why is it called maple syrup urine disease?

  • Briefly explain what causes this disease.
  • How many births in North America result in infants with MSUD?

This disorder is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner, this means that both the copies of gene within each cell are affected. Both parents of a child having an autosomal recessive disorder has one gene of the defective gene, although they normally exhibit no clinical manifestations (O’Reilly et al., 2021). Whenever a person gets a defective gene from both parents, they develop recessive genetic illnesses. If an individual inherits one functional gene or one nonfunctional gene for an illness, the person would become a carrier for that condition but will typically exhibit no signs. Maple syrup urine sickness is a hereditary condition in wherein the body seems unable to correctly digest particular amino acids (protein basic building block) (Xu et al., 2020). The illness is so named because the urine of afflicted newborns has an unique sweet odour. MSUD is a hereditary condition, meaning that it is handed down via generations. It is the result of a mutation in one of three genes. Individuals who have this disorder are unable to digest the amino acids isoleucine, valine, and isoleucine. As a result, these substances begin to accumulate in the bloodstream. Maple syrup urine illness is predicted to affect around one in every 185,000 babies born in North America (Strauss et al., 2020).

O’Reilly, D., Crushell, E., Hughes, J., Ryan, S., Rogers, Y., Borovickova, I., … & Knerr, I. (2021). Maple syrup urine disease: Clinical outcomes, metabolic control, and genotypes in a screened population after four decades of newborn bloodspot screening in the Republic of Ireland. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease44(3), 639-655.

Strauss, K. A., Puffenberger, E. G., & Carson, V. J. (2020). Maple syrup urine disease. GeneReviews®[Internet]. Xu, J., Jakher, Y., & Ahrens-Nicklas, R. C. (2020). Brain branched-chain amino acids in maple syrup urine disease: Implications for neurological disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences21(20), 7490.

BOOK for reference:

Biological Science, Third Canadian Edition, 3rd edition

  • Scott Freeman
  • Kim Quillin
  • Lizabeth Allison
  • Michael Black
  • Greg Podgorski
  • Emily Taylor
  • Michael Harrington
  • Joan C. Sharp
Order Now

Get expert help for Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication and many more. 24X7 help, plag free solution. Order online now!

Universal Assignment (September 27, 2023) Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication. Retrieved from
"Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication." Universal Assignment - September 27, 2023,
Universal Assignment July 19, 2022 Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication., viewed September 27, 2023,<>
Universal Assignment - Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication. [Internet]. [Accessed September 27, 2023]. Available from:
"Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication." Universal Assignment - Accessed September 27, 2023.
"Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication." Universal Assignment [Online]. Available: [Accessed: September 27, 2023]

Please note along with our service, we will provide you with the following deliverables:

Please do not hesitate to put forward any queries regarding the service provision.

We look forward to having you on board with us.


Get 90%* Discount on Assignment Help

Most Frequent Questions & Answers

Universal Assignment Services is the best place to get help in your all kind of assignment help. We have 172+ experts available, who can help you to get HD+ grades. We also provide Free Plag report, Free Revisions,Best Price in the industry guaranteed.

We provide all kinds of assignmednt help, Report writing, Essay Writing, Dissertations, Thesis writing, Research Proposal, Research Report, Home work help, Question Answers help, Case studies, mathematical and Statistical tasks, Website development, Android application, Resume/CV writing, SOP(Statement of Purpose) Writing, Blog/Article, Poster making and so on.

We are available round the clock, 24X7, 365 days. You can appach us to our Whatsapp number +1 (613)778 8542 or email to . We provide Free revision policy, if you need and revisions to be done on the task, we will do the same for you as soon as possible.

We provide services mainly to all major institutes and Universities in Australia, Canada, China, Malaysia, India, South Africa, New Zealand, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

We provide lucrative discounts from 28% to 70% as per the wordcount, Technicality, Deadline and the number of your previous assignments done with us.

After your assignment request our team will check and update you the best suitable service for you alongwith the charges for the task. After confirmation and payment team will start the work and provide the task as per the deadline.

Yes, we will provide Plagirism free task and a free turnitin report along with the task without any extra cost.

No, if the main requirement is same, you don’t have to pay any additional amount. But it there is a additional requirement, then you have to pay the balance amount in order to get the revised solution.

The Fees are as minimum as $10 per page(1 page=250 words) and in case of a big task, we provide huge discounts.

We accept all the major Credit and Debit Cards for the payment. We do accept Paypal also.

Popular Assignments

Foundations of Communication Assessment 2 Instructions

Discussion task (Total grade – 10%)   Process Work (Steps to complete the task) Answer on the Assessment 2 Submission Document – Do not upload this instruction document. Requirements (important elements to include) lastname_firstname_studentID_COMS_Assess 2_semester_year. Process for Assessment discussion tasks NOTE: If you do not participate in the class discussions then

Read More »

Assessment Two Dos and Don’ts (Internal)

Do: Read the assessment instructions carefully Read the marking rubric carefully Understand the question – break it down Conduct research – record the reference details Read the topic materials about communication theories, forms and factors and refer to them Contribute to the discussions in class or no marks for the

Read More »

Unpacking the Question: Assessment Two

Studying at university requires you to become familiar with strategies to un-pack or breakdown a variety of assessment questions/tasks throughout your studies.  Task Example of integrating the discussion, research and theories. In the group discussion my group members (name them) stated that an advertisement for a beauty product would most

Read More »

MGMT0001 Introduction to Commerce Assessment

MGMT0001 Introduction to Commerce Assessment 2 (worth 30%) Due date:                  2:00pm (AWST) Friday 15th September 2023 Submission:              Via Turnitin assessment submission link (see ‘Assessment 2’ folder in ‘Assessments’ section of Blackboard). Additional Instructions: Part A (42 marks) Nathan is a well-known chef with years of experience cooking various cuisines. After

Read More »

ACCT5011: Accounting Systems in the Digital Age

Practical Assignment Guide, Semester 2, 2023 Due Date for Submission: Monday 11th September 2023 at 5.00 PM Please note that the Folio Assignment for ACCT5011 Accounting Systems in the Digital Age is an individual assessment task worth 30% of your total marks in the unit. Please refer to the online

Read More »

EC229- Review session

Assume two cities, A and B, that can’t trade between them. Each city produces its own coconuts for its local market. If suddenly trade is possible then: D) As we saw in class, the new price will be somewhere between the original price 𝑃_𝐴,𝑃_𝐵. Hence it is impossible for consumers

Read More »

Computing Theory COSC

Computing Theory COSC 1107/1105 Assignment 1: Fundamentals Assessment Type Individual assignment. Submit online via Canvas → As- signments → Assignment 1. Marks awarded for meeting re- quirements as closely as possible. Clarifications/updates may be made via announcements/relevant discussion forums. Due Date Week 6, Sunday 27th August 2023, 11:59pm Marks 125

Read More »

BE279 Applied Statistics and Forecasting

Strategy, Operations, & Entrepreneurship Group Essex Business School Module Code BE279 Module Title Applied Statistics and Forecasting Assessment Type Individual Report (2,000 word) Academic Year 2022/23, Spring Term Submission Deadline Refer to FASER Task Specific Guidance Please note that: Module Learning Outcomes On successful completion of the module, students will

Read More »

Learning Design Tool: Little Learners Level 1 sounds

Learning Design Tool: Little Learners Level 1 sounds. Prepared by Sara Hart Date 30th August, 2023 (feel free to leave this date as it is the AT2 due date) Brief description of Learning Design   Chooseit Maker: Create, edit and play personalised learning activities that can be used in your

Read More »


HUMN1041 PEOPLE, PLACE AND SOCIAL DIFFERENCE ASSIGNMENT 1 TEMPLATE This assignment is made up of three (3) parts, plus a reference list and appendix. Marks are allocated for each section, as follows: – 1 mark Please ensure that you provide your answers in this template, and provide a Reference list

Read More »

Model 3 Launch in Australia

Client Information Company Name Tesla Contact Name   Email   Phone Number   Address Level 14, 15 Blue St. North Sydney, NSW 2060 Australia Ad link & image Project Information Project Title Model 3 Launch in Australia Project Description (100 words) Highlight the uniqueness of the car. Show the superior

Read More »

MKT10009 Marketing and the Consumer Experience

School of Business, Law and Entrepreneurship Assessment Task – Assignment 2  MKT10009 Marketing and the Consumer Experience Semester 2, 2023. Assessment Type Analytical Report Associated Unit Learning Outcomes (ULO’s) 2, 3, 4 Group or Individual task Individual Value (%) 25% Due Date Monday 20th September at 10:00 AET – Enterthis

Read More »

ASSIGNMENT – 1st Evaluation

ASSIGNMENT – 1st Evaluation Date of Submission- 4TH SEP 2023 25 MARKS COMPARATIVE PUBLIC LAW Q. You are the new Central Minister for Urban Development who is keen to make major Indian cities as smart cities. You visit different countries like USA, UK, European Countries, Japan and other developed countries

Read More »

Corporate & Financial Due Diligence Report

[Name of the company] Note: Students should keep in mind that application of legal provisions (including Securities Regulations) and analysis of the same is important. Merely putting the facts and figures won’t fetch even a decent mark. Note: Students should only mention the broad area of business. This part should

Read More »

ECON1000 S2 2023 – Marking Guidance and FAQs on GTP

Students will be marked on the extent to which they specifically answer the question and provide clear, logical, well-reasoned and sufficient explanations. Here is a summary breakdown of how marks are allocated in this GTP: Part 1 [15 marks] §  Providing relevant observations from the information provided in the articles

Read More »

ECON1000 S2 2023 – GTP Brief

ECON1000 S2 2023 – GTP Brief A.  Context and Overview The Game Theory Presentation (GTP) is worth 30% of the final mark. GTP is a ‘take-home’ exercise with a set of tasks to do. The GTP is based on Lecture Topics: L1 and L2. You will have twenty (21) days

Read More »

Order #35042 Human Rights Research Essay

Draft due 26th Aug 2,500 words (excluding references and bibliography) Instructions: Structure: Title – The Tigray War: A Critical Analysis of What the Future Holds for Human Rights in the Region What can be done to ensure human rights violations will cease and be prosecuted? Expand on different actors and

Read More »

PMC1000: Applied Pathology

Assessment Task Sheet: Poster Presentation Date: Thursday 31st August 2023 | Weighting: 30% Assessment Task 2 You are required to develop a handout style resource (pamphlet or brochure) on a selected pathological condition which is aimed at first year student paramedics. You will need to use high quality peer reviewed

Read More »

Detailed Information: Reflective Assignment

Indigenous Peoples, Law and Justice Detailed Information: Reflective Assignment Due Date:                   Tuesday 5th September 2023 at 4:00 pm (AWST). Marks:                       30% of the total marks for this unit. Assignment:              The assignment will comprise two questions. Students must answer all parts of both questions. Examinable topics: The cultural immersion exercise and/or

Read More »

Indigenous Peoples, Law and Justice

Indigenous Peoples, Law and Justice Reflective Assignment Questions Instructions: The assignment comprises two questions. Students must answer all parts of both questions. Question 1: The proposed Referendum Question is asking Australians whether the Voice should be established. What is meant by the Voice? In May 2019, Professor Anne Twomey, an

Read More »

Cultural immersion activity

Context of Carrolup To support fellow Australian and truth telling. Third space = a spiritual an mental place, meeting point of many cultures all over the world to communicate and feel safe to merge thought and aspects of everyone’s individual culture to create a sense of what they want the

Read More »

High-Fidelity Mockup Design for a Employer / Company  Review Platform

Demo Task: High-Fidelity Mockup Design for a Employer / Company  Review Platform Project Overview: You are tasked with designing high-fidelity mockups for a  Employer / Company  review platform that serves both employers and employees/users. The platform’s goal is to provide a space where employees can share their experiences and opinions

Read More »


ASSESSMENT COVER SHEET (Please ensure this cover sheet is completed and attached on top of each assessment) QUALIFICATION CODE AND TITLE:  Certificate IV in Commercial Cookery UNIT CODE: BSBSUS401               TITLE: IMPLEMENT AND MONITOR ENVIRONMENTALLY SUSTAINABLE WORK PRACTICES               Student Number   Student Name   Assessor Name   Assessment Name and

Read More »

Data Analysis and Findings

Qualitative data analysis technique called thematic analysis includes reading the data collection and looking for patterns in the meaning of the data to determine the theme. Making sense of the data is an active reflexive process in which the researcher’s personal experience is important. On Instagram, though, any company can

Read More »

PHE5STL: Systems Thinking and Leadership

Assessment 2: Complex problem briefing paper instructions and submission link PHE5STL: Systems Thinking and Leadership Assessment 2: Complex, or messy, problem briefing paper Assignment type Briefing paper/policy advising paper Weighting 20% Word count / length 1,500 words Note: The word count does not included references however does include in-text citations

Read More »

Assessment 1 Week-6: UML Modelling for a shopping mall

Assessment 1(    ) Information and Rubric Subject Code  ICT505 Subject Name  Software Development Assessment Number and Title  Assessment 1 Week-6: UML Modelling for a shopping mall Assessment Type Lab Activity Length / Duration  45 Minutes Weighting %  10% Total Marks  100 Submission Online Submission Due Date Week-6 (Sunday 23:59) Mode

Read More »

The Geopolitical, Economic and Legal Environment  

Faculty of Business and Law Assignment Brief Mode E and R Regulations Module Title: The Geopolitical, Economic and Legal Environment     Assignment Number 2 Module Code: 7010SSL   Assignment Title Macro Analysis Report Module Leader: Dr. Bentil Oduro   Assignment Credits 10           Release Date:

Read More »

Paragraph Template: TEEL Structure

 With this example from the discussion board, you can see Courtney answered the question with all four elements very clearly. This gives a coherent answer using different kinds of information and academic integrity. Bias is a natural behaviour of tendency to be in favour or against something in particular. From

Read More »

Choosing the Perfect Event Theme

Choosing the Perfect Event Theme Theme selection is crucial to creating a memorable and meaningful graduation celebration for the class. This selection should reflect their accomplishments and identities. Graduation marks the end of a long period of hard work, commitment, and personal growth.  Therefore, choosing a theme that effectively captures

Read More »

Can't Find Your Assignment?

Open chat
Free Assistance
Universal Assignment
Hello 👋
How can we help you?