Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication

Assignment 1

  1. A. Briefly explain how the leading and lagging strands of DNA are synthesized during DNA replication. (10 marks)
  2. What is the function of each of the following? (2 marks each, 10 marks total)
    • Primase
    • Helicase
    • Nucleases
    • Histones
    • Poly(A) tail
  3. What would be the complementary strand of the following portion of DNA: 3’AACCGTAATTCG5’? (2 marks)
  4. Using the following mRNA sequence, provide a definition and an example of each of the following mutations: silent, nonsense, missense, and frameshift mutation. (3 marks each, total 12 marks)


  • Summarize how a mature mRNA is made from the primary mRNA transcript. (6 marks)
  • Answer the following two questions: (8 marks total)
  • Describe the central dogma of molecular biology. (2 marks)
  • Give 3 reasons why proteins are not made directly from DNA. (Hint: Consider disadvantages of using DNA directly, and/or advantages of not using DNA directly). (6 marks)
  • Compare and contrast the following which are involved in transcription in Eukaryotes: (4 marks each, 12 marks total)
  • Promoter proximal elements and promoter
  • Enhancers and silencers
  • Regulatory transcription factors and co-activators
  • How can one gene code for more than one protein? (2 marks)
  • Describe the four levels of chromatin structure and explain how chromatin is decondensed to allow transcription. (10 marks)
  • Compare and contrast dideoxy DNA sequencing and Southern blotting with respect to procedure and purpose. (8 marks)

Assignment 2.

  • You are studying a cell which, before the S phase of the cell cycle, has 8 chromosomes and 1.2 picograms (1.2 × 1012 grams) of DNA. Complete the following table with the expected number of chromosomes, chromatids, and homologous pairs, and the amount of DNA in each area or pole of the spindle at each of the stages indicated. (1/2 mark per box, 10 marks total)
 ChromosomesChromatidsHomologous pairsDNA amount
Prophase (Mitosis)81642.4 picograms
Anaphase (Mitosis)8841.2 picograms
Prophase I (Meiosis)81642.4 picograms
Anaphase I (Meiosis)4801.2 picograms
Anaphase II (Meiosis)4400.6 picograms

Including examples, compare and contrast the following: (4 marks each; 16 marks total)

  • Genotype and phenotype
  • Codominance and epistasis
  • Crossing-over and independent assortment
  • Non-disjunction and translocation

A particular type of pond organism usually reproduces asexually. However, in later summer and as winter approaches it tends to reproduce sexually. Explain why this organism would use two different methods of reproduction at different times of the year. (6 marks)

Alternation of generation is the concept whereby certain living organisms are capable of multiplying either through sexual or asexual mode. Sexual reproduction is defined as the production of sex gametes (formed as a result of meiosis), and its fusion, whereas, in asexual reproduction, the life cycle is through spores that are formed as a result of mitosis. In the pond, the organism normally reproduces through asexual reproduction mainly to increase the number of individuals, as the condition would be favouring their growth.

The same organism reproduces through asexual means mainly to climatic conditions and other external characteristics including the availability of foods. Under such extremes of condition, the organism switches to the sexual mode of reproduction allowing the crossing-over of genes that genetically produce offspring that are significantly different and far more superior than the wildtype that is better adapted to face the harsher environment. It is for this reason that the organism in the pond that once reproduced through asexual mode switched to the sexual mode of reproduction.

  • A female Drosophila (fruit fly) heterozygous for red eyes and grey body was crossed with a male homozygous for scarlet eyes and ebony body. The two genes are linked on the same chromosome. The following offspring were produced. How many map units would separate them? (Show all your work.) (4 marks)
Red eyes, grey body76
Red eyes, ebony body26
Scarlet eyes, grey body30
Scarlet eyes, ebony body68

Number of recombinants present = 26 + 30 = 56

Total number of offspring’s produced = 76 + 26 + 30 + 68 = 200

Recombination’s frequency = (total number of recombinants / complete number of offspring produced) x 100

Recombination frequency is = (56 / 200) x 100

          = 28%

The recombination frequency is considered to be equivalent to the distance between the genes. So the distance between the genes will be 28 centi morgans.

  • In a certain breed of domestic fowl, super comb is dominant to single comb but feather colour shows absence of dominance. Black legs and white legs are homozygous, whereas the heterozygote gives red legs. From crosses between birds heterozygous for both genes, what proportion of the offspring would you expect to be: (Define the alleles and show all your work using a Punnett Square.) (12 marks)

Super comb – Dominate “S”

Single comb – recessive “s”

Black leg – homozygous (BB)

White leg – homozygous (bb)

Red leg – Heterozygous (Bb)

  1. Super-combed

Super-combed = 12

  • Black-legged

Black-legged = 4

  • Red-legged

Red-legged = 8

  • Super-combed and red-legged

Super-combed and red-legged = 6

  • Single-combed and white-legged

Single-combed and white-legged = 1

Super comb black leg – 3

Super comb red leg – 6

Super comb white leg – 3

Super comb black leg – 1

Single comb red leg – 2

Single comb white leg – 1

  • A particular X-linked gene is a recessive lethal that causes death and reabsorption of the embryo at an early stage. A heterozygous female married a man expressing the dominant trait. Define the alleles and show your work in answering the following questions: (5 marks)

X-linked inheritance pertains to genes which are located exclusively inside the X-chromosome. The bulk of X-linked genetic disorders are recessive as well as affects men more than women. This really is attributable to differences in the amount of X chromosomes among men as well as women. For such a male to display the X-linked disease, just single recessive allele is required whereas females requires two. An illustration of such X-linked ailment is really the blood disease haemophilia.

X- female normal gene

xo – x-linked recessive trait

y – male normal gene

Female recessive heterozygous – Xxo

Male dominant – xo y

XX xoX y
xoxo xoxo y
  1. What proportion of their offspring would be expected to be females?

Based on the Punnet square, there is a 50 per cent chance that their offspring is female.

  1. What proportion of the offspring would be expected to be carriers of the gene?

There is a 25 per cent chance that their offspring is a carrier.

Let Xh represent the lethal gene. The mother is represented as XH Xh and the father as XH Y. Results show that there is a 25 per cent chance one (Xh Y) of their offspring’s will die, and 25% chance that one(XH Xh ) of their offspring’s is a carrier. There is also a 75 per cent chance that their offspring will live.

  • Look at the following pedigree. Circles represent females; squares represent males. Coloured circles and squares represent affected individuals. Horizontal lines represent matings; vertical lines represent offspring produced from a mating. (15 marks total)
  • What is the mode of inheritance? Referring to the applicable numbered individuals, explain your reasoning. Your choices are autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, X-linked dominant, X-linked recessive, Y-linked. (10 marks)

A dominant autosomal trait is passed on from generation to generation. Inheritance. It is indeed a dominant gene that is found on the one of the non-sex chromosomes inside this form of heredity (autosomes). This sort of condition may be caused by a single faulty gene. 50 percent of the time, the father’s genes will result in an impaired kid, whereas the other 50 percent of the time will result in an unscathed child having 2 common genes (recessive genes). Therefore it could be an inherited condition as none of the parents has impacted offspring. There are two daughters inside this lineage and only circular 5 is afflicted, thus it cannot be x-linked dominant. Each parents in squares 7 & 8 are impacted in the second generation. However, their child 12 square remains unaffected, therefore afflicted parents may produce a non-affected child. It’s impossible for this illness to be x-linked recessive since it doesn’t pass from mother through son and father into father.

  • What are the genotypes of the following individuals (be sure to define the alleles): 4, 5, 8, 11? (5 marks)

Autosomal Dominant allele, (a -normal, A-disease)

Affected Male (AA)

Affected Female (AA)

Unaffected Male (aa)

Unaffected Female (aa)


Individual 4th : aa

Individual 5th : Aa

Individual 8th : Aa

Individual 11th : Aa or AA (continued for next generation)

  • List 4 features of an ideal organism for the study of genetics. (4 marks)
  • Explain the roles of bicoid, the segmentation genes, and homeotic genes in development of an embryo. (10 marks)
  • Answer the following questions about stem cell research: (10 marks total)
  • Differentiate between multipotent, pluripotent, and induced pluripotent stem cells. Include an example of each. (5 marks)
  • Outline the advantages and disadvantages of iPS cells. (5 marks)
  • Write a short paragraph (not more than 200 words) describing the genetic disorder known as maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). In your discussion, include answers to the following questions, using your own words to write a coherent paragraph in complete sentences. Cite your sources following the citation instructions in Jan A. Pechenik’s A Short Guide to Writing about Biology(8 marks)

a. How is maple syrup urine disease inherited?

b. Why is it called maple syrup urine disease?

  • Briefly explain what causes this disease.
  • How many births in North America result in infants with MSUD?

This disorder is transmitted in an autosomal recessive manner, this means that both the copies of gene within each cell are affected. Both parents of a child having an autosomal recessive disorder has one gene of the defective gene, although they normally exhibit no clinical manifestations (O’Reilly et al., 2021). Whenever a person gets a defective gene from both parents, they develop recessive genetic illnesses. If an individual inherits one functional gene or one nonfunctional gene for an illness, the person would become a carrier for that condition but will typically exhibit no signs. Maple syrup urine sickness is a hereditary condition in wherein the body seems unable to correctly digest particular amino acids (protein basic building block) (Xu et al., 2020). The illness is so named because the urine of afflicted newborns has an unique sweet odour. MSUD is a hereditary condition, meaning that it is handed down via generations. It is the result of a mutation in one of three genes. Individuals who have this disorder are unable to digest the amino acids isoleucine, valine, and isoleucine. As a result, these substances begin to accumulate in the bloodstream. Maple syrup urine illness is predicted to affect around one in every 185,000 babies born in North America (Strauss et al., 2020).

O’Reilly, D., Crushell, E., Hughes, J., Ryan, S., Rogers, Y., Borovickova, I., … & Knerr, I. (2021). Maple syrup urine disease: Clinical outcomes, metabolic control, and genotypes in a screened population after four decades of newborn bloodspot screening in the Republic of Ireland. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease44(3), 639-655.

Strauss, K. A., Puffenberger, E. G., & Carson, V. J. (2020). Maple syrup urine disease. GeneReviews®[Internet]. Xu, J., Jakher, Y., & Ahrens-Nicklas, R. C. (2020). Brain branched-chain amino acids in maple syrup urine disease: Implications for neurological disorders. International Journal of Molecular Sciences21(20), 7490.

BOOK for reference:

Biological Science, Third Canadian Edition, 3rd edition

  • Scott Freeman
  • Kim Quillin
  • Lizabeth Allison
  • Michael Black
  • Greg Podgorski
  • Emily Taylor
  • Michael Harrington
  • Joan C. Sharp
Order Now

Get expert help for Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication and many more. 24X7 help, plag free solution. Order online now!

Universal Assignment (February 1, 2023) Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication. Retrieved from
"Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication." Universal Assignment - February 1, 2023,
Universal Assignment July 19, 2022 Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication., viewed February 1, 2023,<>
Universal Assignment - Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication. [Internet]. [Accessed February 1, 2023]. Available from:
"Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication." Universal Assignment - Accessed February 1, 2023.
"Assignment 1 & 2 on DNA Replication." Universal Assignment [Online]. Available: [Accessed: February 1, 2023]

Please note along with our service, we will provide you with the following deliverables:

Please do not hesitate to put forward any queries regarding the service provision.

We look forward to having you on board with us.

Get 90%* Discount on Assignment Help

Most Frequent Questions & Answers

Universal Assignment Services is the best place to get help in your all kind of assignment help. We have 172+ experts available, who can help you to get HD+ grades. We also provide Free Plag report, Free Revisions,Best Price in the industry guaranteed.

We provide all kinds of assignmednt help, Report writing, Essay Writing, Dissertations, Thesis writing, Research Proposal, Research Report, Home work help, Question Answers help, Case studies, mathematical and Statistical tasks, Website development, Android application, Resume/CV writing, SOP(Statement of Purpose) Writing, Blog/Article, Poster making and so on.

We are available round the clock, 24X7, 365 days. You can appach us to our Whatsapp number +1 (613)778 8542 or email to . We provide Free revision policy, if you need and revisions to be done on the task, we will do the same for you as soon as possible.

We provide services mainly to all major institutes and Universities in Australia, Canada, China, Malaysia, India, South Africa, New Zealand, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

We provide lucrative discounts from 28% to 70% as per the wordcount, Technicality, Deadline and the number of your previous assignments done with us.

After your assignment request our team will check and update you the best suitable service for you alongwith the charges for the task. After confirmation and payment team will start the work and provide the task as per the deadline.

Yes, we will provide Plagirism free task and a free turnitin report along with the task without any extra cost.

No, if the main requirement is same, you don’t have to pay any additional amount. But it there is a additional requirement, then you have to pay the balance amount in order to get the revised solution.

The Fees are as minimum as $10 per page(1 page=250 words) and in case of a big task, we provide huge discounts.

We accept all the major Credit and Debit Cards for the payment. We do accept Paypal also.

Popular Assignments

Assessment 4: Tableau Dashboard and Report

Issued:                Monday of Week 4 Due:                     11:59PM (local Time) Wednesday of Week 7 Weight:                60% Report Length: 1500 – 4000 words + Tableau *.twbx file Overview During this assessment you will produce an interactive Tableau Dashboard and an accompanying report detailing the planning of the Tableau Dashboard. Background Tableau dashboards

Read More »

Assessment 3: Critical Review of a Tableau Dashboard

Issued:                Monday of Week 1 Due:                     11:59PM (local Time) Sunday of Week 5 Weight:                20% Length:               5-10 minutes (approx. 500-3000 words) Overview During this assessment you will produce a video presentation critically reviewing a Tableau dashboard from a design planning and communication perspective. Background Tableau dashboards are used extensively for

Read More »

Wireless Communication Engineering Assignment Help

Looking for Wireless Communication Engineering Assignment Help? If you are looking for wireless communication engineering assignment help, just get it quickly online! The good news is that you no longer need to chase your professors around with confusion about assignments. Nor do you have to stress out as chase that

Read More »

Assessment 2: Planning and Creating Static Visualisations

Due:                     11:59PM (local Time) Sunday of Week 3 Weight:                20% Length:                1000-2500 words Overview During this assessment you will produce written report detailing the planning and creation of three static visualisations derived from a data table. In this assessment, the quality of the presented visualisations is not assessed, only the

Read More »

Nursing Healthcare Case Study Assignment Help

ASSESSMENT ITEM 2: DESCRIPTION Shared decision-making is a model for clinical practice which includes patients’/clients’ values and preferences and supports them to make decisions about their own care and treatment options in collaboration with their healthcare team (Geddis-Regan et al., 2020). A patient’s/client’s culture affects the way they understand health

Read More »

BSBCRT311 Apply Critical Thinking Skills in a Team Environment

Table of Contents Table of Contents…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 3 About the Business Services Training Package…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 4 About this Unit of Competency……………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 Chapter 1: Prepare to Address Workplace Problem…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 7 ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………… 8 Key Points: Chapter 1…………………………………………………………………………………………………………….. 30 Chapter 1 – ‘True’ or ‘False’ Quiz……………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 31 Chapter 2: Evaluate Solutions for Workplace Problem…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………

Read More »

BSBCRT311 Apply critical thinking skills in a team environment

WORKPLACE PROJECT TASK   Student details  Student name  Student email address  Assessment Details  About this task  This workplace project requires you to use critical thinking to resolve two typical problems in the workplace.   This assessment includes the following tasks:  Task 1: Workplace Problems  Task 2: Self-reflection  You will need 2 participants who

Read More »

BSBCRT512 Originate and Develop Concepts

Contents Section 1: Scoping a relevant issue. 5 Section 2: Generating and evaluating solutions. 8 Section 3: Concept finalisation. 11 Student name:   Assessor:   Date:   Business or Community/Social group this assessment is based on:   Documentation reviewed as preparation:   Job role assumed for this assessment:   Section

Read More »

EMS5RCE – Risk Engineering (2022)

Assignment 2 Due Date: 13th February 2023, 23:59PM 1        Outline You have been tasked to evaluate the risks associated with moving from a traditional construction method for constructing concrete formwork (such as precast), to an advanced method that will be designed to take advantage of additive and/or automated and digital

Read More »

NIT3171 ICT Business Analysis & Data Visualization

Individual Assignment – Business Analysis Case Study (Stage II – 35 marks weighing 35%) Report Submission Date (through the dropbox): (10% will be deducted for each day of delay) Presentation (5 minutes each) 10 Marks: In this assignment, a Melbourne housing dataset is given to you to apply data mining

Read More »

HSC ECONOMICS The Global Economy

HSC ECONOMICS  Assessment Notification: Task 1 Subject: Economics Topic The Global Economy Nature of Assessment Task Oral presentation with a written component Weighting 25% Teacher Ms R Ali Date of Notification Term :4 Week 5A  (2022) Due Date Term 1 (2022), Week 7A,Friday (written component) and Week 8B(Oral component)  

Read More »

Behaviour & Environment Case Study

Section 1: Overview of Issue of Human-Environment Relations & Proposed Intervention (Delete this and enter your text for this section here) Section 2: Identify all key stakeholders: (Delete this and enter your text for this section here) Section 3: Explain how the Intervention Strategy should be implemented (Delete this and

Read More »

Assignment BMSC Pharmacology Breakdown

  Section Word Limit Marks Research Time Writing Time Description Clarity N/A 5 10 mins 1 hr sentence structure; typographical errors; scientific style Reference N/A 5 20 mins 40 mins correct use of referencing style and in text citations; typically 5-10 references depending on the topic/experimental platform and drugs used

Read More »

Assessment Task 3: Portfolio Output 3

This task requires you to create a blog post and a 3-4 minute edited video that critically and creatively responds to one of the Digital Media Contexts from weeks 7-10 (this must be a different topic from what you chose for Portfolio Output 2). Your video is to be embedded

Read More »

Formulae Sheet

Formulae Sheet Current ratio Current assets Current liabilities     Quick ratio or acid test Cash + marketable securities + net receivables Current liabilities     Current cash debt coverage Net cash provided by operating activities Average current liabilities     Receivables turnover Net sales Average net trade receivables  

Read More »

Cashflow and Financial Analysis

Assessment Task: 20% Cashflow and Financial Analysis – Template IMPORTANT:  Preparing the cashflow statement and financial analysis template. The template is prepared to satisfy all the assignment business’s so there may be extra line items in the template. To submit the cash flow statement, you need to use the template

Read More »

Cashflow and Financial Analysis – Ship’em In&Out

Assessment Task: 20% Cashflow and Financial Analysis – Ship’em In&Out IMPORTANT:  Preparing the cashflow statement and Financial analysis To submit the cash flow statement, you need to use the template document in CANVAS. The template is prepared to satisfy all the assignment business’s so there may be extra line items

Read More »

Pros and Cons of Chat GPT Assignment Help

How great is Chat GPT Assignment Help? Chat GPT Assignment help is definitely an incredible possibility for students. It is a technological advancement that can generate essays and articles on a massive range of topics. Moreover, you can just ask any question, and you will get your answer right away.

Read More »

Question 10 – REPORTS

Complete the table below, by listing three types of financial reports that are produced in your workplace. Type of Report Content of Report Frequently of Report                  

Read More »


Work through the following table and indicate whether each record should be kept or destroyed. Detail the reason for your answer and how long the record should be kept (for example, legislation requirement – retain for five years). Record Keep – Yes or No Reasons Suppliers Invoices     Employee

Read More »


Using the following information, complete the Business Activity Statement, you may need to refer to the ATO website to help you complete. Download and complete the Business Activity Statement (BAS). It can be found separately on the course page.

Read More »


AVERAGE Activity 5.1 – Break-even Answers A. B.   Manage 8 Buildings Manage 10 Buildings Manage 15 Buildings Manage 20 Buildings Manage 25 Buildings Income           Less Variable Costs           Less Fixed Costs           Total Cost    

Read More »

Question 3 – Depreciation

You are the Licensee-In-Charge of Hope & Murphy Real Estate and wish to purchase computers for your new office in the CBD. Using the information below: Office fit out                      $120,000 Assets effective Life          4 years Purchase Date                  1st July STRAIGHT-LINE METHOD CALCULATION Years 1 to 4 – JOURNAL ENTRIES DEPRECIATION                                               

Read More »


Please note: Editing has been restricted in this document. From the information provided below, complete the following table: Account Name Classification Profit & Loss or Balance Sheet Amount Pay Superannuation Expense Profit & Loss $117,325 Pay Mobile Phone     $7,500 Pay Office Rent     $65,000 Land & Buildings

Read More »


Worlducation is a social startup that manufactures tablet computers for primary school students. They not only focus on the hardware, but they also have a competitive team creating software, content and activities to better engage and educate the students. Worlducation aims to change the way children learn at school by

Read More »

Can't Find Your Assignment?

Open chat
Free Assistance
Universal Assignment
Hello 👋
How can we help you?