Total Marks 100 | Weighting 25%
DUE: 29/09/2023, 11:55pm
- The assignment must be submitted via Turnitin by 11:55 pm Friday, September 29, 2023. The submission link is available under the ‘Assessment Tasks’ tab on iLearn.
- No extensions will be granted except for the cases where an application for Special Consideration has been approved. For further details, see the University’s Special Consideration page.
- Unless a Special Consideration request has been submitted and approved, a 5% penalty (of the total possible mark) will be applied each day a written assessment is not submitted, up until the 7th day (including weekends). After the 7th day, a grade of ‘0’ will be awarded even if the assessment is submitted. Submission time for all written assessments is set at
11.55 pm. A 1-hour grace period is provided to students who experience a technical concern.
- Re-submissions are allowed until the deadline. After the deadline, no re-submissions are allowed under any circumstances.
- Note that Turnitin will compare your submission against others’ as well as internet sources including so-called ‘homework help’ websites. The originality report will be made available to you after the deadline.
- Prepare your answers in one document using word processing software (e.g., Microsoft Word). Hand-written answers (except for the diagrams and associated labels) will not be marked.
- All Macquarie University students have been automatically granted a full Microsoft 365 license. Click here for more information on how to download Microsoft 365.
- Do not add a cover page to your assignment or repeat the text of the questions in your submissions. Simply answer questions in order, denoting Q1, Q2, Q3… etc and their sub- parts a, b, c, …etc.
- Written answers should not exceed the maximum word limit stated in each question. Any words written exceeding the limit will not be assessed.
- Note that this is a maximum word limit, you may answer the question in fewer words if desired. Correct concise answers using a word count less than the maximum can still achieve full marks.
- Some questions require diagram illustration. Diagrams can be electronically drawn or hand- drawn and must be inserted into your answer document.
- Applications for electronically drawn economic models include Microsoft Word and Google Drawings.
- One way to insert a hand-drawn diagram is to take a photo of the diagram hand- drawn on paper, send it to your computer via email, copy it into your document, and then crop as required.
- Save your answer document in .docx or .pdf format.
- For Mac users: Do not submit a .pages file. Turnitin cannot read it, hence it cannot be assessed.
- Revise your discussions before submission to enhance brevity and clarity. Please indicate the word count at the end of your answer to each of the questions to which a word limit applies.
- After you submit you should double-check on Turnitin whether the document was properly uploaded and that all your diagrams are visible and formatted correctly. If you see any issues, you should resubmit before the deadline.
- There is no need to cite the textbook. This is because all your answers will need to draw upon concepts and frameworks from the textbook, which is the primary point of the assignment.
- There is also no need to cite the articles linked in the assignment. Again, your answers will need to draw upon these resources.
- Note that the information from the textbook, lecture notes, tutorial questions and articles linked in the assignment should be enough to address all questions. Therefore, you are not expected to incorporate any additional sources in your answers.
UNACCEPTABLE ACADEMIC ACTIVITIES
- MQ course material is the intellectual property of the University, which includes this assignment document. Course materials must not be uploaded to any websites or shared with any people outside the University without the permission of the University. Doing so is likely to result in copyright infringement and may initiate the student disciplinary procedure.
- Recall “what is okay” and “what is not okay” from the Academic Integrity Module. Unacceptable academic activities include but are not limited to, contract cheating, collusion, plagiarism, and self-plagiarism. Details about academic integrity can be found here: MQ academic honesty policy.
- This is an individual assignment. Writing answers together is not authorised and hence is categorised as collusion. You may discuss this with other students at the preparatory stage. However, the final version of the assignment should be written in your own words.
- A detailed rubric is provided on the last page.
- Given the size of the unit, the entire marking process will take around four weeks. There will be an announcement on iLearn when the marks are released.
Question 1 | [12 marks]
Download the spreadsheet data that was used to create Figure 1.2 in your textbook The Economy. You can download the spreadsheet data by clicking on the xlsx link here
Consider the following three countries: Zambia, Spain and Japan.
- For each one calculate the rich to poor ratio in 1980, 1990 and 2014 (6 marks).
- Describe the differences in the rich to poor ratio between countries revealed by your calculations. (3 marks)
- Describe the changes in the rich to poor ratio over time for each country. (3 marks)
Question 2 | [10 marks]
Consider the example of Greta and Carlos discussed in The Economy textbook Unit 1 Section 1.8 and Figure 1.9a and 1.9b. Assume the market price is now 1 tonne of wheat can be traded for 45 apples. Greta proposes a trade of 15 tonnes of wheat with Carlos.
- What would Greta and Carlos have available to consume of both goods if the trade goes ahead? (5 marks)
- Would both Carlos and Greta be better off after the trade? Explain. (5 marks)
Question 3 | [15 marks]
Suppose the price of Solar Panel (Ps) is $40 and the price of Coal (Pc) is $20 and a representative generator in the power sector has two types of technologies available with a goal to produce one MWh of electricity:
|Solar Panel (S)
- Calculate the production costs required for the two types of technology. Which technology would a firm choose? (2 marks)
- Write down the equation of the isocost line for each technology. Make S the subject of the equation. (2 marks)
- Draw the two isocosts on a diagram. Indicate Technologies A and B and the relative input price. (2 marks)
- Suppose the price of coal increases to $30 per unit and the price of solar panel decreases to $15 per unit. Calculate the new production costs for the two types of technology. Which technology would a firm choose? (2 marks)
- Write down the equation of the isocost line for each technology after the change in the relative input price ratio. Make S the subject of the equation. (2 marks)
- Draw the new isocosts on the same diagram and indicate the relative input price ratio. (2 marks)
- Write down the equation to calculate the innovation rent. How much is the innovation rent? (3 marks)
Question 4 | [15 marks]
Using the model developed in The Economy Unit 3, Section 3.7, consider Jenny who is working at a large fossil fuel-based power plant in NSW. Prior to the energy crisis she had been receiving a wage (w) of $50 per hour.
Assume that Jenny’s spending on goods and services cannot exceed her earnings per day. Maximum consumption (c) per day is:
c = w(24 – t) where t = hours of free time per day.
Your answers must include both a diagram and words to clearly explain your diagram. In addition, your diagram must be fully labelled and therefore you must label both axes, correctly determine the vertical axis and horizontal axis intercepts, label the slope of the budget constraint and show the optimal amount of free time and consumption associated with it.
- Initially when facing w = $50 per hour Jenny chooses to work 8 hours per day and have 16 hours of free time per day. Using a fully labelled diagram describe Jenny’s utility maximizing combination of free time and consumption. (4 marks)
- Due to the financial impact of the energy crisis on the energy sector and the implementation of climate change policies, the owners of the fossil fuel-based plants have reduced Jenny’s wage to $30 per hour. Using the same diagram as used in part “a” show Jenny’s new utility maximizing combination of free time and spending on goods and services assuming that her hours of free time each day decrease to 12 hours. (4 marks)
- On your diagram decompose the overall change in hours of free time in response to the wage decrease into the (i) income effect and (ii) substitution effect. You must use words as well as the diagram to explain the decomposition of the overall change. (7 marks)
Question 5 | [15 marks]
Sam works in a car manufacturing company. Currently, his firm pays him $50 per hour and he works 35 hours per week. Each hour he works he experiences disutility of effort from working valued at $8 per hour. In addition, should Sam lose his job the government will pay him an unemployment benefit of $25 per hour, for each hour he would otherwise work each week, for a maximum of 20 weeks. Prior to the energy crisis if Sam lost his job the expected duration of unemployment before he would find another job is 15 weeks.
- Calculate Sam’s (i) employment rent per hour and his (ii) total employment rent. (3 marks)
- With the advent of the energy crisis and the increase in the interest rate by the Central Bank, the economy has gone into recession causing Sam’s expected duration of unemployment to increase to 35 weeks. Furthermore, the dramatic increase in the expected duration of unemployment has resulted in psychological stress from unemployment valued at $5 per hour.
In the light of these developments re-calculate Sam’s (i) employment rent per hour (2 marks) and (ii) total employment rent (4 marks).
- Describe the relationship between the size of the employment rent and (i) the expected duration of unemployment (ii) the size of the unemployment benefit per hour and (iii) the size of the psychological cost of unemployment per hour. (word limit 100) (6 marks)
Question 6 | [20 marks]
Consider the example of Angela and Bruno discussed in The Economy textbook, Unit 5 Section 5.9 and Figure 5.9. In Figure 5.9 (reproduced below), points D and F are the outcomes before and after the introduction of a new law that limits Angela’s work time to four hours a day, while also requiring a minimum pay of 4.5 bushels. Based on this information, answer the following questions:
- “The new outcome F is Pareto efficient”. Discuss if this statement is correct or false. Explain your answers using the graph. (3 marks)
- Using the graph what is the maximum amount of grain per year that Angela would be willing to pay so that the law passed? (3 marks)
- “As a result of the new law, Bruno receives no economic rent”. Is this statement correct or false? Please discuss your answer making reference to the diagram. (Word limit 50) (3 marks)
- Now assume that the law has been amended so that a longer work day is permitted if both parties agree. The workers maintain the right for a 4-hour day if no agreement is reached. Thus, Bruno would like to negotiate a longer work day for Angela because he believes that there are many “win-win” possibilities available to them. Would you agree with him? If yes, explain your answer by using the concepts of “joint surplus” and the “Pareto efficiency curve”. Show all alternatives that could result in a better deal for both on the diagram. (Word limit 130) (5 marks)
- Assume that Bruno and Angela make a deal. Discuss whether any potential new allocation resulted from the win-win agreement in part (d) would be fairer (Word limit 150) (6 marks). (Hint: Your evaluation must be based on both (i)substantive judgement of fairness and (ii) procedural judgement of fairness)
Question 7 | [13 marks]
Think of the problem of climate change as a “game” between two countries called Brazil and Germany, considered as if each were a single individual. Each country has two possible strategies for addressing global carbon emissions:
- Mitigate: taking measures to reduce emissions, for example by taxing the use of fossil fuels or subsidising the development of renewable energy.
- Adapt: a scenario in which people, governments and businesses are free to adjust to the current and future effects of climate change without taking adequate account of the effect of their actions on others.
The figures below describe the outcomes and hypothetical payoffs of this game. All payoffs represent potential increases to the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP), measured in billions of USD. Use this model to answer the following question:
- Do either of the players have a dominant strategy? If so, what is it? (2 marks)
- What is/are the Nash equilibrium/equilibria of this game? Is this game a Social Dilemma? Explain your answer. (4 marks).
- Could the payoffs in this figure represent the situation that both countries have social preferences? Why? (3 marks)
- What would you suggest in this game to solve the social dilemma of climate? Support your response with an example (Word limit 100) (4 marks)
- My assignment is written in full sentences and in clear formal language.
- My assignment is proofread, and errors and typos are minimised.
- My assignment is written within the word limit for each question.
- Diagrams are drawn clearly and fully labelled. Poorly drawn diagrams reflect poor communication which may result in a loss of marks.
- Diagrams are not distorted and are properly inserted into the document.
- I have read the rubric on the next page and made sure that my assignment meets the criteria.
- I have double-checked whether the document was properly uploaded.
- I have seen my Turnitin originality report (generated after the deadline).
MACQUARIE BUSINESS SCHOOL
Department of Economics
ECON1020 PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS 1 | S2 2023
ECON1020 INDIVIDUAL ASSIGNMENT RUBRIC
|High Distinction (HD)
|Visual Communication – Diagram Illustration Diagrams are demonstrated to effectively reflect the given scenarios via appropriate economics concepts/theories. Diagrams are fully labelled.
|Not attempted, significantly plagiarised, or very poor use of diagrams. Students demonstrate poor understanding of the given scenario or relevant economic concepts/theories. Diagrams are poorly labelled.
|Student ordinarily demonstrates ability to communicate with diagrams and ordinarily reflect the real-world scenario using some economic concepts/theories. Diagrams are partially labelled.
|Student satisfactorily demonstrates ability to communicate with diagrams and appropriately reflect the real-world scenario using some relevant economic concepts/theories. Diagrams are partially labelled.
|Student effectively demonstrates ability to communicate with diagrams and appropriately reflect the real-world scenario using some relevant economic concepts/theories. Diagrams are fully labelled.
|Student effectively demonstrates ability to communicate diagrams and appropriately and insightfully reflect the real-world scenario using all relevant economic concepts/theories. Diagrams are fully labelled.
|Written Communication – Calculation – Analysing Issues Given scenarios are analysed using relevant and appropriate economic concepts/theories. Text has formal structure with good text logic.
|No attempt, significantly plagiarised, or student fails to demonstrate an analysis substantiating any of made claims through economic concepts/theories. Student simply provides personal opinions with no analysis. Text has no formal structure. Very poor text logic with frequent use of contradictions.
|Student ordinarily demonstrates an analysis, develop poor arguments, struggling to substantiate claims through few and/or irrelevant economic concepts/theories. Student mostly provides personal opinions and limited analysis. Text has under-developed formal structure. Poor text logic with recurrent use of contradictions
|Student accurately demonstrates an analysis; develops fair arguments but they lack substantiation through relevant economic concepts/theories. Text has formal structure. Satisfactory text logic with some use of contradictions.
|Student accurately demonstrates an analysis; skilfully develops arguments, substantiating made claims through relevant economic concepts/theories. Text has clear and well-developed formal structure. Excellent text logic with miniscule use of contradictions.
|Student accurately and insightfully demonstrates an analysis; masterfully develops arguments, substantiating made claims through relevant economic concepts/theories. Text has clear and original formal structure. Outstanding text logic with no use of contradictions.
|Written Communication – Communicating Solution via Research A clear overall argument is derived based on analysis, demonstrating independent well-reasoned judgement. Relevant and reputable sources are used and properly cited/referenced.
|No attempt, significantly plagiarised, or solution is fundamentally flawed and/or contains excessive detail without argument. Irrelevant and non-reputable sources. Referencing is non- conforming to standard style and/or absent.
|Solution is basically sound with some judgement but not based on analysis. Irrelevant or non-reputable sources. Referencing is mainly inaccurate and/or does not conform to a standard style.
|Solution is sound with appropriate judgement based on analysis. Relevant or reputable sources. Referencing is fairly accurate using standard style.
|Solution is very sound with comprehensive judgement based on analysis. Relevant and reputable sources. Referencing is accurate using standard style.
|Solution is excellent, with evidence of originality and comprehensive judgement based on analysis. Relevant and reputable sources. Referencing is accurate using standard style.
|Ethical Thinking Demonstrate an ability to use ethical frameworks to evaluate economic outcomes in real-world applications.
|No attempt, significantly plagiarised, or student does not demonstrate an ability to use ethical frameworks and evaluate economic outcomes in real-world applications.
|Student poorly demonstrates an ability to use ethical frameworks and evaluate economic outcomes in real-world applications.
|Student satisfactorily demonstrates an ability to use ethical frameworks and evaluate economic outcomes in real-world applications.
|Student effectively demonstrates an ability to use ethical frameworks and evaluate economic outcomes in real-world applications.
|Student effectively demonstrates an ability to use ethical frameworks and evaluate economic outcomes in real-world applications. Student identifies differences across ethical frameworks.