Information technology For business
Trimester 3, 2021
Assessment Weight: 40 total marks
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This assessment consists of six (6) questions and is designed to assess your level of knowledge of the key topics covered in this unit.
Discuss three (3) conversion techniques for changing over an existing information system to a new system. Identify the key issues for each method. Also, give real-life examples where each method was used successfully, or failed by any organisation. Use peer-reviewed referencing support, to justify your solution.
ANSWER: ** Answer box will enlarge as you type
The following are three different kinds of conversion systems:
1) Parallel conversion
Using a method called “parallel conversion,” the old as well as new systems are put into operation at the same time for a period of time. When the outputs have been compared, any discrepancies are resolved (Englander and Wong, 2021). The main benefit of this kind of conversion would be that it protects the organisation from the breakdown of the newer system and also has achieved broad acceptance.
Job placement is one example. Same task for new and veteran employees. If somehow the performance of the new employees is satisfactory, the current personnel may no longer be required, and they will be substituted.
2) Modular conversions
Secondly, the upgraded system is implemented in sections via a modular conversion. For illustration, even though the first sales area is successful, that same may be done for the following and on and on (Gubela et al., 2019). System failures may be identified and remedied prior to further installation using this system’s localised risk assessment. Conversion takes a long time and isn’t practical for many systems or organisations, which is one of the drawbacks.
Example is Object-oriented techniques may be used to replace a hospitality industry’s old system.
3) Phase-In Conversion
However, unlike the Modular Approach, thus the system actually is subdivided rather than the organisation like in Modular Method. Some new data gathering activities have been implemented as well as an interface technology has been built with the previous system. The fresh input data may be used by the old systems thanks to such a interface. In this manner, parts of the system are put in place one at a time until the whole thing is operational (Englander and Wong, 2021). If an organization’s transition rate is reduced, and information processing resources are gained gradually above a long period of existence, this is advantageous. The drawback of this approach is that it necessitates the creation of temporary interfaces to legacy systems.
An example of this is an IT company that replaces a present system component with an electronic version.
Question 2 (5 marks)
While your studies maybe in the areas of accounting or marketing etc, discuss why you should enhance your learning in the information technology field. Moreover, how this would benefit you in your future employment position; in your chosen field of study. Use peer-reviewed referencing support, to justify your solution.
As with accounting industry, technological advancements enable humans to accomplish our goals while doing so with greater efficacy. Advanced accounting has been revolutionised by the use of information technology systems and computer scheme software. It’s time to say goodbye to paper statements, general ledger, as well as spreadsheets filled out by hand. Rather, accounting records with built-in checks as well as balances operation details the above data much more quickly than ever now. Accounting’s functionality has been greatly enhanced as a result of technological advancements (Lee et al., 2018). Computerized financial reporting systems are designed to organise large quantities of data rapidly and correctly. Market proportion reports, cash inflows, as well as financial gains and loss statements for individual departments are all made easier by computerised accounting platforms. Marketers can benefit from IT’s assistance in spotting possibilities and putting them into action across a variety of media. It also aids in the development of the market, diversification of revenue sources, 24*7 comfort, value inclusion, client satisfaction, enhanced sales performance as well as credibility, and opportunities for growth. Because of the ease with which companies can now access massive worldwide information resources through the use of ICT throughout marketing, firms now have better competitive or consumer decision-making knowledge at their fingertips. Social media advertising, search engine optimisation, digital marketing, sponsor marketing, E-mail advertising, and SMS advertising are among the ICT-powered advertising networks. This is why firms are eager to recruit IT experts that also have a strong background in their primary industries, such as accounting as well as marketing.
The use of computers, databases, the World wide web, wireless, plus personal digital technologies has permanently changed the way businesses perform their activities. Conventional operations and manufacturing procedures have also been enhanced by the use of software applications. The rapid development of information technologies has aided accounting tremendously (Turner, Weickgenannt and Copeland, 2020). Paper document ledgers and balance sheets are replaced by accounting programs. Some of these software applications provide specialised functionality, while others are more general in nature and may be tailored to fit the needs of a certain company. In most cases, accounting software is chosen depending on the volume of the company and the numbers of people who will be using it (Lee et al., 2018). Enterprise resources planning systems (ERPs) may be used by large corporations. Accounting systems have reaped major gains from the use of information technology. Accountants’ preparation and presentation of financial data to administration and stakeholders has been sped up by the use of IT networks as well as computer systems. Aside from speeding up financial reporting, IT has also enhanced the general quality and efficiency of accounting reporting.
Question 3 (5 marks)
Compare and contrast traditional communication mediums with digital communication mediums. Moreover, how this has improved business connectivity, but also introduced new challenges; in terms of data security and privacy. Discuss these points, and use appropriate peer-reviewed referencing support, to justify your solution.
With digital marketing, every channel via which any customer is exposed to an advertising messages is the primary difference among the two methods. Digital advertising, as opposed to conventional marketing, makes use of electronic media, like as websites and social media. Conventional media seems to be more expensive than modern media because of its wide reach and advertising outlets. Traditional methods (such as phone calls as well as face-to-face meetings) are typically considered time consuming (Allen, 2017). As a result, many companies assume that companies must clear up a significant amount of resources and commit an extensive internal staff to managing them. In fact, this is really a regular occurrence. But at the other extreme, digital platforms (such as social networks and online chat) are considered to be significantly more affordable. These channels need significantly less ‘man-power’ for operating, yet they often result in worse customer service. Companies overuse digital to the point that they depend on automated communications which fail to provide a memorable customer experience for their customers.. When it comes to the storage, redistribution, and public display of personally identifiable information (PII), social networking sites fall under the umbrella term “data privacy,” which encompasses a broader range of issues (Underwood and Ehrenreich, 2017). Because of the massive volumes of data that these sites collect on a daily basis, there are security plus privacy concerns with social networking sites. Users’ personal information may be accessed by others via features like as messages, invites, photographs, open platform apps, as well as other programs that attract participation. Aside from this issue, the technology required to handle user data may impinge on their confidentiality.
Question 4 (5 marks)
How are companies like Google and Facebook able to track users, and provide an improved user experience. Moreover, how do you feel personally that the information you provide on the internet, is both tracked and traded. You may construct your answer in a reflective format, and where appropriate use supporting referencing.
Tracking the geolocation of users plus remembering what they all have looked for are strong tools that these corporations have at their disposal. It is possible for anyone to set up their own media profiles where they may share their preferences, habits, and demographic information (Duijst, 2017). The items users publish, like, approving, or browsing for on various devices might be used to gather information regarding different people. Using this information, big data firms and scientists may construct personas regarding individuals that include information such as their gender and age, whatever they enjoy, and many more. Data corporations are building computerised characters based upon information acquired from smart gadgets, which end up knowing everything about people than their actual family members and friends (Photiadis and Papa, 2022). Media sites can keep track of their whereabouts at all moments by utilising the location capabilities offered by their smartphone. Different media sites may use location data from any mobile device to promote cafés, businesses and even acquaintances that are nearby.
How well these platforms can monitor personal information, in my opinion, shows a lack of regard for our privacy. Such data tracing is immoral, and consumers should be made aware of it before to using such websites.
Question 5 (10 marks)
How are business able to ensure that their online business is able to maintain a 24/7 presence, if they are not able to have a dedicated Information Technology department, within their organisation. Moreover, what are the risks to the organisation, for using other companies, to provide e-commerce services for them. Use the Adapted Harvard Referencing style with peer-reviewed referencing support, to justify your solution.
The firm hires Digital Marketing Agencies to maintain their organization online around the clock in these situations. Employing any Digital Marketing Team has many Advantages w hen it comes to contemporary company, having a strong online presence seems to be crucial for success, development, and extension of your consumer base. A good digital marketing strategy involves time as well as effort, both of which a digital marketing firm can save an organization (Babenko et al., 2019). In most cases, a new digital marketing strategy that is established from scratch is useless and requires a lot of trials as well as error before it can be refined into a successful strategy. With the help of a digital marketing firm, you can skip this step and start seeing results immediately.
Using third-party organisations to supply e-commerce services carries the hazard that the e-commerce products may not always accurately reflect the company’s brand (Zhu et al., 2017). Companies that specialise in e-commerce may be unable to emphasise their company’s strengths or devote the time as well as resources demanded by the organisations.
Question 6 (10 marks)
Instructions: Please read the case study below the question and then answer the following case study question.
Case Study Question: Many organisations now utilise social media as a means to extract valuable information about their potential customers. From the following mini-case study reading passage, identify what you think, the information the company should look for, when constructing their social media presence. Moreover, how it could possibility benefit the organization, from a profit point-of-view, and meeting the challenges from a new competitor. Discuss these key points. Use the Adapted Harvard Referencing style with peer-reviewed referencing support, to justify your solution.
A Brief Case Study Reading – Social Media @ Costco Quahog
The Quahog Costco Supermarket, on an average day, serves over 3500 customers. The store sells practically everything. The typical customer spends on average $125 each. While some customers spend over $1000 per visit. Larger spending customers, typically buy high-end products within the store’s electrical and computing department.
It has now come to management attention that a new competitor – Aldi, is going to open across the road. Management is concerned about losing their more valuable customers to this new player. They want to know how they can keep these customers, and ensure that they get the best offers on the high-end products they purchase. Management has already in place various social media channels, used to attract and inform their customers, in the City of Quahog.
While they do have social media channels such as Facebook and YouTube, they have not embraced the newer kid on the block, TikTok. The company is not sure how to use this newer social media channel, and benefit their customer base. But they are aware their new competitor has already deployed this social media channel to success in other markets. Management is eager to see their results, before the new competitor starts building, so they can also match their digital presence.
This software has gone from a dance app for teenagers to one all-purpose socio-cultural force in only 3 years. These have influenced everything from music as well as cuisine trends to social media and political discourse. People are now shopping there as a result of its transformation into a retail establishment. Quite a few. 1 billion people across the globe use TikTok every day (Nisar et al., 2019). That places TikTok above LinkedIn, Facebook, Instagram, as well as Snapchat among the most popular social media platforms (with the exception of the Chinese counterpart, Douyin, which has 600 million members).
It ended up taking Instagram 6 years from it’s own start to obtain the equivalent number of daily active users which TikTok did in well under 3 years. Facebook, from the other hand, took almost 4 years to reach the same number of daily active users.
As an important social networking trend promoting creative talents and cooperation among youthful audiences, marketers get lured towards TikTok. The estimate of 52 minutes is spent on the app each day by users because of their fast-paced characteristics. TikTok is used on a regular basis by 90 per cent of the whole user base (Schlagwein and Hu, 2017). They’re also a lot of fun to hang out with on the app. 68 per cent of overall TikTok users view other people’s videos, while 55 per cent submit their own films, according to a research conducted over the course of a month. Accordingly, Quahog Costco Supermarket’s marketing approach should include tiktok to get an advantage over its competition.
Allen, M. ed., 2017. The SAGE encyclopedia of communication research methods. SAGE publications.
Babenko, V., Kulczyk, Z., Perevosova, I., Syniavska, O. and Davydova, O., 2019. Factors of the development of international e-commerce under the conditions of globalization. In SHS Web of Conferences (Vol. 65, p. 04016). EDP Sciences.
Duijst, D., 2017. Can we improve the user experience of chatbots with personalisation. Master’s thesis. University of Amsterdam.
Englander, I. and Wong, W., 2021. The architecture of computer hardware, systems software, and networking: An information technology approach. John Wiley & Sons.
Gubela, R., Bequé, A., Lessmann, S. and Gebert, F., 2019. Conversion uplift in e-commerce: A systematic benchmark of modeling strategies. International Journal of Information Technology & Decision Making, 18(03), pp.747-791.
Lee, M., Yun, J.J., Pyka, A., Won, D., Kodama, F., Schiuma, G., Park, H., Jeon, J., Park, K., Jung, K. and Yan, M.R., 2018. How to respond to the fourth industrial revolution, or the second information technology revolution? Dynamic new combinations between technology, market, and society through open innovation. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 4(3), p.21.
Nisar, T.M., Prabhakar, G. and Strakova, L., 2019. Social media information benefits, knowledge management and smart organizations. Journal of Business Research, 94, pp.264-272.
Photiadis, T. and Papa, V., 2022. ‘What’s up with ur emotions?’Untangling emotional user experience on Second Life and Facebook. Behaviour & Information Technology, pp.1-14.
Schlagwein, D. and Hu, M., 2017. How and why organisations use social media: five use types and their relation to absorptive capacity. Journal of Information Technology, 32(2), pp.194-209.
Turner, L., Weickgenannt, A.B. and Copeland, M.K., 2020. Accounting information systems: controls and processes. John Wiley & Sons.
Underwood, M.K. and Ehrenreich, S.E., 2017. The power and the pain of adolescents’ digital communication: Cyber victimization and the perils of lurking. American Psychologist, 72(2), p.144.
Zhu, H., Ou, C.X., van den Heuvel, W.J.A. and Liu, H., 2017. Privacy calculus and its utility for personalization services in e-commerce: An analysis of consumer decision-making. Information & Management, 54(4), pp.427-437.
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