IC51006A Visual Culture, Essay 2 – Long Project Report

IC51006A

Visual Culture

Essay 2 – Long Project Report

Assessment NameAssessment TypeDuration/ Length% WeightingFormative or SummativeGraded or Pass/FailAssessment to be passed to pass the module (Y/N)
Long projectEssay2000 word70SummativeGradedNo

Due: Friday, 6 May 2022, 4pm

Submission: Via Learn.gold,

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  • Please note that your average mark for the Class Participation Worksheets (Class 5- 10) will be added to (subtracted from) the essay mark for the exercise to give you a final mark for the assignment.

Assignment:

Choose ONEof the six empirical research projects, below.

IMPORTANT: Please read the following pages for details on each project. There are important caveats on each assignment.
  1. Decode a built environment (e.g. Goldsmiths’ campus).
  1. Analyse an object.
  2. Conduct a photo-elicitation with a small sample of participants, using one or a few still images or a short moving image. Note: Be aware of ethics of working with human subjects.
  1. Analyse ‘living visual data’ in the form of (a) performing musician(s) OR (b) visitors to display settings. Note:Be aware of ethics of working with human subjects.
  1. Do a discourse analysis of a museum. Note: You must use discourse analysis (see the detailed instructions, below). Look for key themes, truth claims, complexity/ contradiction, and absences/silences.
  1. Conduct an independent empirical research project. With my permission, you may carry out an alternative project. This must use a visual method discussed in the module, go beyond the first exercise, and be ethical/safe.

Details:

NB: I have listed chapter numbers and pages from the first edition of both textbooks (as these are the ones available as e-books). Remember, chapter numbers and pages may differ in the later editions.

All essays should show an understanding of the conceptual material either from Rose or from Emmison and Smith (or both), and the textbook(s) should be cited appropriately.

Further reading is appropriate, but as with the short project, this long project should be a research project you conduct yourself. Though I want you to show an understanding of key readings, this is not a library-research essay. Additional citations that support your empirical analysis may improve the essay, but if additional citations displace your empirical analysis, you are likely to get a lower mark.

I want to see that you have analysed primary data (your site visit, interview, or observation of a specific object). You are allowed to use first person voice (i.e. ‘I’) when writing up your findings.

You are encouraged to use images in the essays. (Some projects require images, but in others this is optional, but usually helpful. Of course, you should not use images where this conflicts with ethical principles). If you use audio-visual materials (moving images), you can use stills from this and/or include a link to the source (if available).

Be sure to put a title on each image, e.g. ‘Figure 1: Screenshot from Rolling

Stones concert’ or ‘Photo 1: Objet d’art in my mum’s sitting room’ – and include the source, e.g. ‘Source: YouTube, <URL>’ or ‘Source: Author’s photograph’.

Please read carefully the further details on the project that you choose, below.

  1. Empirical research: Decode a built environment (e.g. Goldsmiths’ campus).

Important caveats: You should decode a space that you can access safely; it does not have to be Goldsmiths.

You must include photos of the built environment that you took yourself. Also, do not use the same photos you used for Worksheet 9.

Choose a built environment. Goldsmiths’ campus is a built environment that provides ample scope for visual analysis. Or you may wish to choose a built environment that is more conveniently located for you at the time you write your essay. This could be a park, garden, public square, plaza or piazza, or a shopping area, arcade, or mall, among many others. It should be a public space, and is likely to be outdoors (although a mall is an exception to this).

Then choose two contrasting, public areas of the campus (e.g. the Green, a car park, the library foyer or study rooms, a classroom, the exterior of a building, banners or signage, a walkway, etc.) or of your chosen built environment. Show what each area says about the University (or the space you’ve chosen) and the people who are part of it and/or how these areas operate to control people’s bodies. You may wish to observe how people interact with the area, or you may focus on the area as a set of objects. Document your analysis with photographs of the area that you have taken yourself. (These can be embedded into your essay or collected at the end in an appendix.)

In your analysis, decode the space you choose. See Emmison and Smith (2000), Chapter 4, ‘Three-Dimensional Visual Data’ and Chapter 5, ‘Lived Visual Data’. (You may also wish to draw on Rose, 2001, Chapter 7, on Discourse Analysis II). These provide you with the conceptual tools for decoding spaces.

You may wish to consult these studies of the built environment (see the VLE, Lecture 9): Macdonald, Keith M. (1989). “Building Respectability,” Sociology, 23 (1): 55-88.

or see: Macdonald, Keith (1993). “Exemplar B: Building Respectability,” in Nigel Gilbert (ed.) Researching Social Life, first edition. London: Sage, pp. 201-216.

Morrow, Virginia (2001). “Using Qualitative Methods to Elicit Young People’s Perspectives on the Environments: Some Ideas for Community Health Initiatives,” HealthEducation Research: Theoryand Practice, 16 (3): 255-268.

(Note: This study uses photo-elicitation, which you will not use, but Morrow analysis may give you some ideas.)

Alexander, Victoria D. (2013). ‘Views of the Neighbourhood: A Photo-Elicitation Study of the Built Environment’, Sociological Research Online, 18 (1): http://www.socresonline.org.uk/18/1/10.html.

(Note: This study uses photo-elicitation, which you will not use, but again, the analysis may give you some ideas.)

To do this research project well: You will draw on ideas from semiotics or from discourse analysis. You will show how the built environment can code for broader social factors, considering issues such as power, gender or other social divisions, study versus leisure in the student’s life, etc. and you will consider how the built environment can

shape behaviour. You will adhere strictly to codes of ethics and safety, especially if you are observing people (if in doubt, please check with me).

Suggested format:

Introduction: Introduce your essay and describe the areas on campus/the particular built environment that you chose to study. (approx. 80words)

Background: Review relevant literature or concepts on the built environment, semiotics and/or discourse analysis, drawing on the readings/lectures in the module. This may be a separate section, or you may wish to bring up the ideas as you come to them in your findings (next section). (If a separate section: approx.320 words)

Findings: The main part of your report should be your analysis of the two areas of the campus/built environment. Go into some detail here. You will need to describe your findings, but be sure to provide an analysis that goes beyond description. Ideally, refer to concepts and theories related to semiotics or discourse analysis (approx.1440words).

Obviously, if you don’t have a separate background section, your findings will be closer to approx. 1520 words.

Conclusion: Sum up your work and, ideally, say something about the implications of your research, and what you learned about our contemporary situation with respect to visual culture (approx. 160 words).

References: As per always, include a list of sources you used in the essay. (References/bibliography does not count in the word limit.)

Appendix: You may wish to include photographs (encouraged), and these can be embedded within the essay or included as an appendix. I do not mind which option you chose to use for the photos, but in either case, be sure to provide a figure number and title (e.g. ‘Figure 1: The Green’) for each and refer to the photos by number in the essay. With the visual materials (photos) focus on the build environment, not on people, due to ethical considerations of photographing people without express permission.

  1. Empirical research: Analyse an object.

Emmison and Smith (2000: 109) write, ‘objects can operate as indicators of wider socio- cultural processes and therefore serve as tools for a theoretically informed exploration of social life’. Choose a specific object (or make a comparison of two objects) and, drawing on Barthes (1972), ‘read’ a mythology of the object(s). Then,

EITHER:

  1. Classify the object to draw ‘inferences … about people, places and purposes’ (Emmison and Smith, p. 114) using for inspiration Emmison and Smith’s discussion on pp. 111-120 (‘People and Objects’ in Chapter 4, ‘Three- Dimensional Visual Data’).

Here, you will want to draw on Riggins’ (1994, cited in E&S) classification system. Note: Riggins is also available electronically as a separate source (see the library reading list). You may wish to read this. Unfortunately, the second edition

of E&S does not discuss Riggins, so you’ll need to read the first edition (or the original source).

OR:

  1. Observe the way people interact with the object using Emmison and Smith’s discussion on pp. 123-134 for inspiration (this includes discussions of statues and memorials, cemeteries, cars, and houses, in Chapter 4, ‘Three-Dimensional Visual Data’; get ideas here and apply them to your choice).

To do this research project well: You will choose specific objects (e.g. the refrigerator in your kitchen, the Mini Cooper parked next door), rather than a general class of object (all refrigerators as a class of objects or Minis as a model of car).

Beware of analysing a mobile phone – it can be too tempting to tell me about the features of the phone rather than actually analysing it as a unique object that can be classified or analysed for how specific person(s) interreact with it. I have read quite a few weak essays on mobile phones and rarely a good one – you have been warned.

You will give a careful analysis of the object(s). You will adhere strictly to codes of ethics and safety, especially if you are observing people (if in doubt, please check with me).

Be aware that if you chose two objects, you run the risk of providing a thinner discussion of each object and this could affect your mark. If you decide to compare two objects, be sure that there is a clear comparison and that the comparison of the two that will add significantly to your argument (e.g. the old analogue TV at your gran’s, and the home entertainment system at your posh friend’s might make a nice comparison because they are related but there is an implicit contrast). If you are not sure, do a more careful analysis of one object.

Suggested format:

Introduction: Introduce the object(s) you chose to study and why you chose to study it (them). Foreground the social issues that you expect to find. (approx.160 words)

Background: Review concepts on analysing objects, drawing on the readings/lectures in the module. (approx. 240 words)

Findings: The main part of your report should be your analysis of the object(s). Go into some detail here. You will have two sections, the first where you discuss your ‘reading’ of the object and the second where you discuss usage (either through classification or observation). You will need to describe your findings, but be sure to provide an analysis that goes beyond description. Be sure to refer to concepts and theories related to the module (approx. 1440 words).

Conclusion: Sum up your work and, ideally, say something about the implications of your research with respect visual culture. (approx.160 words)

References: As per always, include a list of sources you used in the essay. (References/bibliography does not count in the word limit.)

Appendix: This project may not have any appendices. You may provide a photograph of the object(s) if you like (encouraged), but be careful about ethical issues if you are observing how people interact with the object(s).

  1. Empirical research: Conduct a photo-elicitation with a small sample of participants, using one or a few still images (or a short moving image).

Important caveats: You may interview friends or members of your household face-to- face. Or you may wish to interview people by a video-conferencing software, if that is more convenient or if restricted social mixing is in force in your location.

You may interview friends and family, but you normally would not interview strangers for this assignment (speak to be if you are considering this).

You are specifically forbiddento interview other BA Arts Management students.

Decide on a research question to address – this will be one you develop yourself.

Choose (one or) several images that are relevant to this research question. (For instance, we have analysed a number of advertisements, but we have not asked about the reception of the advertisements. You could ask about the meaning of advertisements for your respondents.) Or, if you prefer, use a short moving image (e.g. from YouTube).

Develop a semi-structured interview schedule, and interview 3-4 people about your images. Your interviews should be short, no more than 15 minutes. You may record the interviews, but you do not have to transcribe them. Be sure to ask permission to do the recordings. (Keep the recordings until after the exam board in June.)

Analyse what your research participants have said.

We covered Photo-Elicitation in Lecture 7 and in the exercise in Class 9, and it is mentioned in Rose, Chapter 8, ‘Other Methods, Mixing Methods’. However, Rose does not go into much detail in her first edition. You may consult a social methods textbook (e.g. Bryman, 2016, Social Research Methods or earlier editions, Neuman, 2015, SocialResearch Methods or earlier editions) on how to do photo-elicitation. (Many of the social methods textbooks discuss this method). Banks (2001), Collier (1967) or Collier and Collier (1986) on the reading list may also be useful (but may not be available electronically). Instead, you might prefer to look at examples of photo-elicitation studies mentioned in the lecture. These include:

From the VLE, Lecture 7:

The lecture mentioned Buckley (2014), Dunn and Wyver (2019) and Stylianou- Lambert (2017). Shively is a film-elicitation. I did not discuss Eck (2001) this year, but have left it on as a potential source.

Buckley, Liam (2014). ‘Photography and Photo-Elicitation After Colonialism’,

CulturalAnthropology, 29(4): 720–743.

Dunn, Rosemary and Shirley Wyver (2019). ‘Before “Us” and “Now”: Developing a Sense of Historical Consciousness and Identity at the Museum’, InternationalJournalofEarlyYears Education, 27(4): 360-373.

Eck, Beth A. (2001). ‘Nudity and Framing: Classifying Art, Pornography, Information, and Ambiguity’, SociologicalForum, 16(4): 603-632.

Shively, JoEllen (1992). ‘Cowboys and Indians: Perceptions of Western Films among American Indians and Anglos’, AmericanSociologicalReview, 57: 725-734.

Stylianou-Lambert, Theopisti (2017). ‘Photographing in the Art Museum: Visitor Attitudes and Motivations’, Visitor Studies, 20(2): 114-137.

From the VLE, Lecture 9:

Morrow, Virginia (2001). ‘Using Qualitative Methods to Elicit Young People’s Perspectives on the Environments: Some Ideas for Community Health Initiatives’, HealthEducation Research: Theoryand Practice, 16 (3): 255-268.

(Note: This article asked participants to take the photos. You may do this as well, but it adds an extra step and I have recommended using a researcher-led approach. You should interview respondents, not just ask for captions on many photos, as Morrow did, and use photos rather than asking for drawings.)

Alexander, Victoria D. (2013). ‘Views of the Neighbourhood: A Photo-Elicitation Study of the Built Environment’, Sociological Research Online, 18 (1): http://www.socresonline.org.uk/18/1/10.html.

(Note: My article asked participants to take the photos. You may do this as well, but it adds an extra step and I have recommended using a researcher-led approach. However, it has a potentially useful overview of the photo- elicitation method.)

To do this research project well: You will develop a research question that is important to social science disciplines (e.g., arts management, sociology, or media studies) from a theoretical perspective. A specific question that you develop with respect to your interest will help you focus your research.

This does not need to be a ‘big’ question. For instance, you could ask, ‘How do women interpret perfume advertising’ (here, issues might be sexist/overtly sexual portrayals of women in a collection of adverts), or ‘Do younger and older individuals vary in their reception of visual images relating to veganism’ (here, you might interview 2 people in their 20s and 2 people of your parents’ age, with a focus on one or several images about vegan eating or animal cruelty), or ‘How do people interpret’… the Diana Memorial Fountain, or a recent, local intervention to the build environment or new sculpture, some Banksy works or xx or yy Art Objects or zz promotional posters, depictions of war, or friendship, or other ideas, perhaps from photojournalism, etc., etc. With questions on interpretation, choose visual images that link to social or arts management issues (that is, you are looking for more than just aesthetic judgements).

You will choose images that allow you to address a social issue (i.e. something of interest to theorists, perhaps issues around representation of social groups or audience perspectives relating to arts management) in a researcher-led photo elicitation. You will interview participants about the images, based on your research question, and you will present your findings, using illustrative quotes from your research participants.

Your focus should be on the findings from the interviews, that is, what people said. You explain why you chose the images (or moving image) and should put them (or a link) into the essay if at all possible, but do not provide a detailed analysis of the images themselves. (The essay is not long enough to follow this mixed-method approach.)

In addition to the substantive findings on the social issue, you will address some key issues in visual analysis in your discussion of your findings (e.g. talk about why a photo interview added information that you would not have gotten with an ordinary interview, or how the representations in the image/clip are received and interpreted). You will adhere strictly to codes of ethics and safety (if in doubt, please check with me).

Suggested format:

Introduction: Introduce your research question and say why it is interesting or important. (approx.80 words)

Background: Review concepts or reading from the module to provide some context for your study, and provide any relevant citations on your specific question if you have these to hand. (approx. 240 words)

Methods: Say what you did in this study. Briefly say why you chose the images you did and what questions you asked your participants. (Put the images and the ‘interview schedule’ – the questions you asked, though not the answers – in your appendix.) Give a brief overview of the participants: who are they (in general, e.g. occupation, approximate age, gender, or the like). (approx. 240 words)

Findings: The main part of your report should be your analysis of the responses from the participants. Go into some detail here. You will need to describe your findings, and provide supporting quotations, but be sure to provide an analysis that goes beyond description. (That is, say what the participants say, but also say what you think it means that they have said what they said.) Be sure to refer to concepts or theories to support your arguments (approx. 1280 words).

Conclusion: Sum up your work and, ideally, say something about the implications of your research with respect to interests in arts management or visual culture (approx. 160words).

References: As per always, include a list of sources you used in the essay. (References/bibliography does not count in the word limit.)

Appendices: You will have two appendices. Include the images you showed to participants in Appendix A. If you use a moving image, you can provide a URL (web address) if you have one, or write up a short narrative describing your film clip for the appendix. Include your interview schedule (which may be just a few items) in Appendix

B. (You do not have to transcribe the interviews, if notes will be sufficient for you. You do not have to include either notes or transcriptions in the appendix, but be sure to keep hold of these until after the marks are confirmed at the exam board in June.)

  1. Empirical research: Analyse ‘living visual data’ in the form of (a) performing musicians OR (b) visitors to display settings.

Important caveats: For Option A, a live concert that you attend yourself is the best choice. However, due to the continuing impact of Covid-19 (and local restrictions which might affect you at the time of writing the essay), you may choose to analyse a live-streamed music concert or a video recording of a live music concert (e.g. from YouTube or catch-up TV). Choose something relatively recent.

For Option B, you must be able to visit a display setting (like a museum or historical house) in person. If these are closed due to local restrictions or it is not safe for you tovisitdueto yourown health status,you should notdoProject 4, OptionB.

Important: This is an observation exercise (unless it is modified by using a livestreamed or recorded concert, in which case, you are an observer, but in a different way than if you were there in person). You will not take photos of people you observe in person (but you may use screenshots of anyone from a video or livestream). This is because, as Goldsmiths’ students, you are held to higher ethical standards than for journalists, even in short exercises such as this. You will need to base your findings on fieldnotes, so choose a setting in which you may sit, observe and write notes. Be aware that musicians put themselves on display, but their audiences do not (or not in the same way) and neither do visitors to museums and the like, so be especially aware in observing people in concerts or display settings.

This project involves looking at how people ‘give off meanings and impressions’ (Emmison and Smith, p. 211), and relates to Goffman’s (1959) Presentation of Self inEveryday Life, that provided a basis for the content-analysis exercise in Week 2. Drawing on the section, ‘Body, clothing and display’ (pp. 211-218 in Emmison and Smith’s Chapter 6, ‘Living forms of visual data’) consider either a musician/band/orchestra or a set of visitors in a display organisation such as a museum. Consider what you can learn by looking at the clothing, jewellery, hairstyles, make-up, and deportment.

For (A), the musician/band/orchestra, consider what themes the body/clothing/display combination transmits about the performers, and consider if it is consistent with other aspects of their performance (staging, music, etc.) For this, you may wish to consider the worksheet from Class 6, although you do not need to take a Foucauldian approach.

For (B), visitors to a display setting, analyse what the body/clothing/display combination might say about the audience profile in the place and time you observe.

To do this research project well: You will choose to observe in an appropriate setting and will not cause disruption to the exhibition or performance through your observation.

You will need to take fieldnotes about your impressions. (Be sure to go into detail, but do not include photographs. You will not be able to obtain informed consent, although as noted, screenshots of performances are OK to use for this exercise.) You will adhere strictly to codes of ethics and safety (if in doubt, please check with me).

This exercise may be more challenging, as you will need to make inferences in real time (while you observe) and then be able to back up your arguments with written descriptions of ‘the seen’ (from your fieldnotes) in order to make your case credible.

You may find it useful to draw on some of the materials from semiotics discussed earlier in the module. Be sure to focus more on social science issues (e.g. what does body/clothing/display tell us about social messages, power, social class, gender norms, etc.), that is what they might mean or signify rather than discussing the aesthetics of the items (such as they are beautiful).

To be clear, option A is limited to musical concerts (popular or classical). You may notobserve dramatic performance (including Opera), as the presentations on-stage are literally scripted.

Suggested format:

Introduction: Introduce the setting you chose to study (concert/gig/museum/gallery) and why you chose to study it. Say which part of ‘the seen’ you will observe. Foreground social issues (power, gender, social class, etc.) that you will focus on (approx. 160words).

Background: Review concepts on analysing living visual culture, drawing on the readings/lectures in the module (approx. 240words).

Findings: The main part of your report should be your analysis of the observations. Go into some detail here. You will discuss your ‘reading’ of the person/people and you will provide an interpretation, perhaps through semiotics, of your readings. You will need to describe your findings, but be sure to provide an analysis that goes beyond description. Be sure to refer to concepts and theories related to the module (approx.1440words).

Conclusion: Sum up your work and, ideally, say something about the implications of your research with respect to interests in arts management or visual culture (approx. 160words).

References: As per always, include a list of sources you used in the essay. (References/bibliography does not count in the word limit.)

Appendix: This project may not have any appendices. You may include fieldnotes, but this is not a requirement.

  1. Empirical research: Do a discourse analysis of a museum

Important caveats: Be aware that this assignment requires a discourse analysis. Do not try to do this assignment if you do not understand the concepts, because a more- standard arts-management analysis of a museum will not meet the assessment brief and will earn a low mark.

You should not do this project if you are unable to visit a museum/gallery safely during Covid, either because of local restrictions or risk of transmission. Choose adifferentassignmentif this is the case where you are when you do the assignment.

For this project, follow Rose (2001) in Chapter 7 (Discourse Analysis II), who is quoted in italics below, and attend to the suggestions I have added:

Visitagalleryoramuseum.Whenwevisitamuseumoragallery,itissomehowclearthatcertainthingsare‘theobjectstobelookedat’:thepaintingstheobjects,the items in the shop. This time, spend time looking at other things: the architecture ofthebuilding forexample, itsfloor plan, itswarders, itsother visitors. (p. 170)

VA: ‘Visit a gallery or a museum.’ This could be a museum/gallery in London or in your hometown. Choose a museum/gallery with at least three rooms, and preferably a café or shop. Important: You must visit in person, but if it is not safe for you to do so, do not choose this assignment.

What technologies of display are used in the gallery or museum you visited?Is thelist of possibilities provided in this section [Rose, 2001, section 4.1] adequate to theirdescription?Oraretheretechnologiesofdisplaythatyouwanttoconsider?(p. 178)

Look at the labels and captions in the museum or gallery you’re visiting.What mightbetheeffects oftaking allthelabels and captions away?(p. 179)

VA: What do the labels suggest about how the museum/gallery positions its objects? (Note, do not do the alternative labels exercise, which Rose also discusses in her book, for this project.)

By no means all galleries have white walls, and few museums do. In the museum orgallery you visited, what other elements of decoration were important?What aboutcoloured wall coverings, lighting, carpet, screens, other objects?What effects didthey produce? If you visited a gallery that had white walls in some of its rooms andnot in others, what was the difference between the white and non-white rooms, intermsoftheir objectson displayandtheeffects created?(p. 180).

So far, this section [4.4] has listed a number of ‘bits and pieces’ that are used inmuseums and galleries. It has focused on their possible effects in terms of theproductivity of their power/knowledge; that is, on how they produce certainknowledges about paintings and objects, and certain subjectivities of visiting andcurating.(p. 181)

VA: Related to these two sections, you would do well to consider the ‘bits and pieces’ with respect to the ‘Steps to a Discourse Analysis’, as detailed in Lecture 6 (look for key themes, truth claims, complexity/contradiction, and absences/silences). You should also connect to power-knowledge, surveillance and/or discipline.

Few of these accounts of museums and galleries deal in any detail with what are nowsurelytwomorekeyspaceswhichvisitorstotheseinstitutionsencounter:theshopandthe café.Visit the shop and café of your museum or gallery [VA: you can look at just one of these, rather than both].What sorts of discourses are at work here?Whatsortsofpractices?Aretheyconnectedto thoseofthedisplayspaces?Ifso,how?If

not, how not? Could you use the methods used by the discourse analysts in thischapterto examinetheproductivities ofthesespaces? (p. 182).

VA: As noted, you should use the discourse analytic ideas in Rose’s chapter to examine the museum/gallery spaces. (You will get a lower mark if you answer ‘no’ to Rose’s last question.)

To do this research project well: You will need to choose a museum or gallery that gives you enough material on its physical spaces and displays to discuss. You will draw on the chapter by Rose (and any further reading you find helpful). Optional: you may draw on some of the material in Emmison and Smith (2000); their Chapter 4, ‘Three- Dimensional Visual Data’ and Chapter 5, ‘Lived Visual Data’ also discuss museums/ galleries. You will be able to interpret various elements in the museum/gallery that tells us about discourses used within them/in the wider society.

You must use discourse analysis, and I strongly suggest you look for key themes, truth claims, complexity/contradiction, and absences/silences. You should address most of the questions Rose poses, but you do not need to address them all. Make a coherent, convincing argument about your chosen museum/gallery. You will adhere strictly to codes of ethics and safety (if in doubt, please check with me).

Suggested format:

Introduction: Introduce the museum or gallery that you chose to study. (approx. 80words)

Background (Optional): Review concepts on discourse analysis, drawing on the readings/lectures in the module. This may be a separate section, or you may wish to bring up the ideas as you come to them in your findings (next section). (approx.320 words)

Findings: The main part of your report should be your analysis of the museum/gallery, structured along the questions that Rose provided. Go into some detail here. You will need to describe your findings, but be sure to provide an analysis that goes beyond description. Be sure to refer to concepts and theories related to discourse analysis (approx. 1440 words). Obviously, if you don’t have a separate background section, your findings will be closer to approx. 1520 words.

Conclusion: Sum up your work and, ideally, say something about the implications of your research with respect to interests in arts management or visual culture (approx. 160words).

References: As per always, include a list of sources you used in the essay. (References/bibliography does not count in the word limit.)

Appendix: This project may not have any appendices. You may do the project entirely textually, but you may also choose to include photos of your museum (which I welcome)

– though if you do, (A) be sure that you are allowed to take photos in the museum/gallery (this is sometimes allowed and sometimes forbidden; do not take photos in the latter case), (B) that the photos add to your argument, and (C) other people are absent or more in the background and not identifiable (for ethical reasons). (The appendix does not count in the word limit.)

  1. Conduct an independent empirical research project. With my permission, you may carry out an alternative project. This must use a visual method discussed in the module, go beyond the first exercise, and be ethical/safe.

Speak to me (or email me) before the end of Spring break if you want to propose an independent, empirical project.

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