School of Engineering, Design and Built Environment, Western Sydney University, NSW 2751, Australia


This research was conducted to analyse the process of manufacturing bottles for soft drinks. The market for soft drinks accounts for one fourth of the total beverage market in the world. For the proper preservation of carbonated beverages, the packaging must be made from a container that is resistant to pressure and does not impart any off flavours. For a significant amount of time, the conventional method for packaging carbonated soft drinks was to use glass bottles topped with crown corks. The usage of containers made of plastic or metal that can be refilled has grown increasingly common. When it comes to the packaging of soft drinks, PET bottles are by far the most common choice available among the many different types of plastic containers. The beverage industry entered a new period of innovation when PET bottles were used to package carbonated soft drinks and alcoholic beverages. This marked the beginning of an exciting new era in the packaging industry. It is noted that there may be significant cost savings to be had with packaging made of flexible plastic.

Table of Contents

1. Introduction. 4

2. Methods. 5

2.1 Introduction of Methods. 5

2.2 Data and Information Analysis Methods. 5

3. Literature Review. 6

4. Conclusion. 10

References. 11

1. Introduction

Carbonated water, sugar, and flavorings are the main components of soft drinks, which are widely consumed. More than 34 billion gallons of the sugary, carbonated soda are consumed each year across nearly 200 countries (Gillies, 2019). In the United States, soft drinks make up a quarter of the overall beverage market. In the early 1990s, American adults drank 49 gallons of soft drinks per year, 15 more than they drank of water (Hafiz et al. 2020).

The food and drink industries could not function without packaging. It ensures that beverages and foods arrive at their destinations in the same pristine condition as when they left the production lines. There is clearly a need for a wide variety of packaging forms, each tailored to a specific use; nonetheless, the focus has always been on minimizing packaging material while preserving form and function for maximum productivity with minimum ecological impact (Coutinho Lemos, 2021).

This is the sort of container that maximizes the proportion of beverage to container. Due to its commercial nature, the design of a soft drink bottle must take into account both the practical and aesthetic needs of the target market. Therefore, there are many factors to consider when selecting a material for bottling this product, such as: allowing pressurized storage; being watertight; being stiff; blocking odors; being lightweight; being recyclable; being transparent; having an attractive design; and being priced affordably. The various methods used to fill carbonated beverages today all adhere to the same basic principles, which have been tried and tested over and over again, albeit with varying degrees of success (Kumar, 2020). Even with all the moving parts in a filling process, the requirements for optimal performance, high filling accuracy, and the preservation of optimum product quality are very straightforward. The quality of the product to be filled is affected by a number of elements, the nature of which varies from product to product. Essential considerations include:

  • The gas elements that are present in the beverage, such as carbon dioxide and oxygen, as well as the influence those gas constituents have throughout the filling process are taken into consideration.
  • During the filling process, the pressure and stress characteristics
  • Temperature control.
  • Viscosity.

This research paper focuses on the key processes involved in the manufacturing of soft drink bottles. The research objectives of this paper are as follows:

  • To find the types of bottle manufacturing processes
  • To analyze the manufacturing process of soft drink bottles
  • To analyze any risk factors, present during the manufacturing process

Following are the research questions related to this paper:

  • What are the types of bottle manufacturing processes?
  • What is the process of manufacturing soft drink bottles?
  • What are the risk factors present during the manufacturing of soft drinks?

2. Methods

2.1 Introduction of Methods

The beverage business is at the forefront of an economic trend toward significant investments in growth and technical advancement. Beverage packaging, whether carbonated or not, is a highly technical subset of the food processing and packaging business. Glass bottles, which were once recycled, have given place to more convenient plastic and cardboard packaging (FIKRU, 2020). The current tendency is to enhance traditional packaging in order to increase its portion of the vast market, increase product shelf life, enhance consumer convenience, and create cost-effective packages.

In this research paper, there will be an analysis of the filling parameters which can be optimized, filling speed can be maximized, and product quality can be maintained by analyzing and adjusting these factors as needed. Preventing the pickup of oxygen is the most crucial factor in the successful filling of carbonated beverages, along with preserving the integrity of the beverage’s contents and the filling temperature. Beverages can be carbonated to add CO2 to them in a dissolved form (Hoffmann and Bronnmann, 2019). The pressure of the gases in the liquid and the corresponding pressure in an enclosed system, such as a pressurized beverage buffer tank, will eventually equalize after some period of time. Preventing CO2 from escaping during filling necessitates a filling pressure in the filler bowl that is around 1 bar greater than the saturation pressure for the desired CO2 concentration of the beverage (Mhlanga and Pradhan, 2020). Saturation pressure must be maintained, but the beverage must be allowed to settle well before being filled, and the container must be filled very gently. The shape of the bottle or cup can also play an important role in ensuring a gentle fill. Typically, beverages are filled by first being delivered to the inside walls of the vessel at the best possible standards, where they then slowly flow downwards to the bottom. Beverage flow will be minimally disrupted by anything other than perfectly smooth container contours (Gillies, 2019).

2.2 Data and Information Analysis Methods

We used Google Scholar case studies as our secondary research methodology, and we employed assumptions, hypotheses, and research questions to frame our work. It is emphasized that the findings of this study apply only to businesses that function under the conditions described above and that share the same or comparable features as the case studies used in this investigation (Ozaki et al. 2022). Environmental rules and sustainable innovations are putting pressure on the soft drinks industry, driving businesses to reduce costs and maximize efficiency. Because of the significant influence of this business on global packaging systems, water consumption, and energy utilization, this effect is more pronounced in this particular industry. Key performance indicators and best management techniques are required for effective management and optimization in this field (Karuppanan et al. 2021).

Information from various sources, including the scholarly literature and reports, was necessary for this analysis. First, a literature review was conducted to establish the present level of academic understanding concerning the long-term viability of SDSCs. In Section 4, we provide context for this process of manufacturing soft drink bottles by reviewing relevant research in the academic literature. Next, a framework was created to establish sustainable best practices and KPIs for the “soft drink industry, based on the findings of the literature review (SM et al. 2021).

Case studies were used to assess the aforementioned framework. Each company was shown the framework, and semi-structured interviews with corporate insiders were used to compile the data”. Printed materials and corporate websites supplemented information gathered through different secondary studies (Hafiz et al. 2020). The following step involved identifying and reaching out to potential participants in the study. This study relied on secondary data collected from the Research and Development (R&D) and Supply Chain (SC) divisions of soft drink corporations to provide reliable results.

When deciding on a material for a certain function, we took into account all of the relevant factors. When deciding on a material, it is vital to examine and analyze all relevant broad variables. Materials can be chosen for either a whole new design or an update to an already established one (Gillies, 2019). This project is unusual in that it involves a brand-new design, but the motivation for that design already exists. For instance, almost all 600 ml capacity bottles on the market are made from polyethylene terephthalate (PET). These outliers, however, are thought to be aiming for a more affluent clientele. Most disposable bottles are made from PET because it meets the necessary specifications, is easily accessible, and is inexpensive (Hafiz et al. 2020).

3. Literature Review

Local bottling and canning facilities produce the vast majority of soft drinks. Franchise companies that produce well-known brands issue licenses to bottlers so that the soft drinks can be produced in compliance with the brands’ exclusive recipes and standards. The perfect beverage packaging material should have a number of features in mind. Weight, recyclability, refill-ability, visibility, shelf life, frangibility, contour retention, and temperature tolerance are all important factors in choosing a packaging material (Gillies, 2019). The three main sources of bottling procedures and their comparisons are discussed below:

Plastic: It is simple to alter the form of a plastic water bottle. High internal pressure is a problem for packaging when it comes to pressured products like soft drinks. However, plastic can be shaped into practically any form, even when subjected to high pressure, thanks to advances in processing processes and materials (Bevindustry.com, 2018). It can be difficult to recycle plastic because of how it is collected, but advances in recent recycling technologies are making more and more plastic recyclable (Coutinho Lemos, 2021).

Glass: Glass is one of the oldest raw materials for bottle manufacturing process. Glass is more difficult to transport “than metal or plastic, yet it is still a viable packing substrate because of its durability, prestige, and the efforts made to reduce its weight. In fact, a new glass bottle could include as much as 60-80% post-consumer recycled glass (Bevindustry.com, 2018). When reusability is essential, glass is frequently chosen because it can survive high washing temperatures and several reuse cycles. Transparent and highly effective as a barrier, glass packaging is among the best options available. It cannot absorb CO2 or let oxygen (O2) in, making it perfect for storage for a long time. The frangibility of glass bottles has been greatly enhanced by recent processing and coating developments. Technology advancements in the areas of lightening and strengthening have made glass a more robust and user-friendly packing” material. The ability of a package to retain its form over time is essential for both product recognition and the introduction of novel ideas to the market (Soft Drinks Association, 2018). Glass can be shaped in a variety of ways and retains its original form. Beverage company owners know that consumers would be delighted by the icy touch of a glass container, therefore they market their products in this way.

Metal: When thinking about containers for drinks, a metal can offers some advantages. Metal scores high marks for its light weight, recyclable nature, and safety (Hafiz et al. 2020). Its lack of transparency and inability to maintain a unique shape are two of its weaknesses. Modern processing methods have made it possible to form cans into different sizes and shapes, but these options are prohibitively costly and hence have only found limited use in niche markets (Bevindustry.com, 2018). Metallic containers have a long shelf life for soft drinks because they block light, retain CO2, and prevent O2 from getting in. Metal cans are commonly used as the primary means of producing a chilly temperature for consumers.

The figure below details about the pros and cons of every attribute within each packaging materials.

Figure 1: Pros and Cons of glass, metal and plastic bottles

(Source: Bevindustry.com, 2018)

Recently, Coca-Cola made an early announcement this year that they would be releasing a plastic bottle made in part from biobased raw materials. Similar to the lofty goal of a plastic bottle derived solely from sugar beets, the goal of bottles created from biopolymers is to replace petroleum-based plastics (Wageningen University, 2018). The agro-industrial company Cosun and Wageningen University worked together on a research project. This effort is part of the Carbohydrate Competence Centre, a research facility dedicated to the creation of novel culinary and non-food items that make use of carbohydrates as a raw material. A first feasibility study looked into the possibility of using sugar beets to produce the building blocks required to make biobased polymers (Wageningen University, 2018). The bioplastics made from these materials were superior to those on the market right now. Water-resistance and temperature-resistance are particularly issues, indicating that the overall quality of these leaves much to be desired. It is essential that sugar beet-based polymers have superior water resistance and thermal stability to existing biopolymers (Soft Drinks Association, 2018). Based on the results of the pilot study, it appears that these prerequisites have been met. Researchers discovered that sugar beets might effectively “replace crude oil and natural gas as a plastic’s raw material. Coca-Dasani Cola’s water” container, set to hit shelves this year, is made from renewable resources for 30% of its construction (originating from sugar and sugar syrup). Researchers working on the biopolymer bottles have raised the bar by developing a bottle that is composed entirely of biobased polymer (Wageningen University, 2018).

There is carbonated water, flavoring, coloring, sweeteners, and preservatives in a can of soda. Pure CO2 gas is dissolved in water (amount varies with different types of beverages). Flavorings, dyes, preservatives, emulsifiers, antioxidants, and foaming agents are some of the other components that can be added. Carbonation loss and rancidification of key flavoring oils are two significant deteriorative processes that occur in carbonated drinks (Hafiz et al. 2020). The first is mostly dependent on how well the packaging prevents gas from escaping, while the second can be avoided by de-aerating the mixture beforehand, using high-quality flavorings and antioxidants, and carbonating the mixture. The package’s ability to prevent gas permeability helps prevent oxidative rancidity (Coutinho Lemos, 2021).

Therefore, the packaging for carbonated drinks needs a container that can withstand pressure and does not add any bad flavors. For a long time, glass bottles sealed with crown corks were the standard for packaging carbonated soft drinks. It is become increasingly common to use refillable plastic or metal containers rather than throw away glass bottles. Because broken glass can cause serious injury or even death, these containers are equipped with a protective foam plastic label made of paper/poly or an all plastic shrink sleeve (Hafiz et al. 2020). In its stead is a tamper-evident, roll-on aluminum screw top.

The 3-piece tinplate containers are the most common metal containers used for packaging carbonated soft drinks (CSD). Recently, 2-piece aluminum cans have been introduced to replace these. These containers are superior than standard tin cans in protecting lacquer against degradation. Aluminum cans are lacquered with materials like vinyl, epoxy, and vinyl organosol (Hoffmann and Bronnmann, 2019). With epoxy amine, the can’s stickiness, color, and pliability are all improved. When it comes to packaging soft drinks, PET bottles are by far the most popular option among plastic containers. The following diagram illustrates the considerations that should be considered when choosing a plastic package to hold CSD.

Figure 2: Factors considering during CSD packaging

(Source: Gillies, 2019)

Typically, the water loss in soft drinks is on the order of 1 percent, with the maximum allowable amount being 20 parts per million (ppm) for citrus-flavored drinks and 40 parts per million (ppm) for Colas (Mhlanga and Pradhan, 2020). It is also important to account for the CO2 that escapes through the wall. While increasing bottle thickness to slow CO2 leakage would be ideal, doing so would significantly increase the price of the bottle. Creep and elastic deformation are further issues that need to be taken into account when working with plastic containers. The needs for packaging carbonated soft drinks are mostly met by the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottle. Because of its durability, dimensional stability, and precision, PET containers may now be pressurized thanks to advances in blow molding processes and bi-axial stretching. They are chemically inert, unbreakable, and have a glass-like appearance with good transparency, shine, and transparency (Karuppanan et al. 2021).

The various advantages of PET containers are:

  • When it comes to the transportation of one thousand liters of soft drink, PET bottles are 32% more fuel efficient than glass bottles.
  • The PET container has a superior manufacturing to product ratio, as it is 63 percent more power saving than glass containers and 47 percent more energy efficient than aluminum cans.
  • When compared to PET, glass bottles and aluminum cans produce around 230 and 175 times the number of emissions into the atmosphere, respectively.
  • When compared to containers made of glass and aluminum, PET bottles produce solid waste that is 68% and 18% less weight respectively.
  • The production of 1000 1-liter PET bottles require 100 kilograms of oil, but the production of 1000 similar glass bottles require 230 kg of oil.
  • Because of their lighter weight, PET bottles contribute to a reduction in fuel use.

PET bottle resins are of a superior quality, making them ideal for storing carbonated beverages (Hafiz et al. 2020). The PET bottles must be exceedingly sturdy to prevent the CO2 inside from causing any deformation or expansion. To achieve this result, a resin with a high intrinsic viscosity but low co-polymer levels is used.

At the moment, more than 90% of PET is used for food packaging, the majority of which is for beverages and drinks. This graph below depicts the distribution of global PET resin usage in terms of both absolute weight and percentage share.

Figure 3: Market share of PET resin

(Source: Coutinho Lemos, 2021)

Polyethylene naphthalate (PEN) is one of many materials that could be used to store CSD since it satisfies various criteria, including those related to its physical, chemical, and barrier properties. In comparison to PET, it provides a barrier against carbon dioxide, oxygen, water vapor, and ultraviolet light that is four to five times more effective. PEN also has greater durability against breaking than its plastic counterpart. Because of its high cost, bottle producers cannot afford to use pure PEN, so instead, it is mixed with PET to create a co-polymer (Hafiz et al. 2020).

Millions upon millions of PET bottles for soft drinks are manufactured annually, and a huge percentage of them end up in landfills after being discarded. In order to slow the accumulation of trash, steps have been taken, most notably in the realm of recycling. The recovery rate for PET ranges from 1% to 2%, making it the most recycled plastic. Only metal is worth more at the recycling facility (Mhlanga and Pradhan, 2020).

Though PET has a greater recycling rate than many other plastics, several businesses and government agencies are working to increase that rate even further. As of right now, research into PET incineration is in the works since, if true, it claims to produce only carbon dioxide and water as byproducts of a successful burn. State and federal governments have set targets of 25–50% PET recycling, access to PET recycling for 50% of the US population, and the rollout of 4000 curbside recycling programs within the next several years. There were 577 curbside PET programs in 2017, as reported by the National Association for Plastic Container Recovery (Hafiz et al. 2020).

4. Conclusion

In today’s modern human culture, the beverages that are consumed the most frequently include coffee, tea, fruit juices, alcoholic beverages, and carbonated soft drinks. While being transported and stored, these beverages are able to keep their distinctive flavor, color, and aroma thanks to the sophisticated packaging materials and procedures that have made this possible (Hafiz et al. 2020). As a means of providing packaging solutions, modern plastic containers have largely supplanted the more commonplace returnable glass bottles. Glass, metal, and plastics are the three most common types of stiff applications that call for packaging materials. When compared to traditional containers made of glass or metal, flexible plastic packaging can provide significant cost advantages. The introduction of carbonated soft drinks and alcoholic beverages packaged in PET bottles ushered in a new era of innovation in the packaging business. The market for beverages packaged in plastic will experience significant expansion in the next years.

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