TEP025 Bioscience – Scientific Communication Task 2

Scientific Communication Task 2:

Representing and interpreting scientific data

Write all answers in your own words using an academic style. This includes not using any personal pronouns. Use double line spacing. This assignment must also be proof-read before submission. Proof reading means carefully going through an assignment to find and correct mistakes in grammar, spelling and written expression.

NOTE THAT IF ADEQUATE IN-TEXT CITATIONS AND/OR A REFERENCE LIST ARE NOT INCLUDED, THIS ASSIGNMENT MUST BE RESUBMITTED AND IT WILL BE MARKED ON A PASS/FAIL BASIS ONLY. STUDENTS WHO DO NOT RESUBMIT THEIR ASSIGNMENT WITH THE MISSING IN-TEXT CITATIONS AND/OR REFERENCE LIST WILL RECEIVE ZERO MARKS.

Purpose

This task assesses graphing skills using Excel, describing results, paraphrasing and summarising information to explain results, and citing and referencing. It will help you learn the skills required to complete the Results and Discussion sections of the Scientific Report.

Investigation

The Australian Women’s Olympic Cycling Team have recently completed an investigation into the effects of environmental temperature on their cyclists’ heart rate in preparation for upcoming competitions in four different environments. The data for this investigation is in and you have been asked to organise, analyse, interpret and explain the results.

See Scientific Communication Task 1 for the locations and expected environmental temperatures at the time of the events as well as the full method. In addition, all athletes wore the same cycling clothes. They all consumed the same food and drink and participated in the same levels of exercise for two days before each experiment.   

Your task

  1. Use the Excel workbook for Scientific Communication Task 2 on Learnline to calculate the mean heart rate of all 10 cyclists for each five-minute interval. This needs to be done for all four temperatures.
  2. Place all mean heart rate calculations for each five-minute interval for all four temperatures into a single table.
  3. Use the table of mean heart rates to create a single, properly formatted graph showing the change in mean heart rate for all four temperatures. Use the data to determine which type of graph is appropriate.
  4. Insert the completed graph in the space below with an appropriate descriptive title. Remember that the description, although written after the graph is made, must appear before it!
  5. Answer the questions below to describe the trends in the graph for the Results and explain the results in the Discussion using all seven sources in the Compulsory Sources sheet on Learnline. Make sure in-text citations for all seven compulsory sources are included.
  6. Put together a reference list that include references for all seven compulsory sources that must be used to complete this assignment.

NO FURTHER RESEARCH IS REQUIRED TO COMPLETE THIS ASSIGNMENT. Only paraphrase information from the sources provided in the Compulsory Sources sheet on Learnline to complete this assignment.

NO DIRECT QUOTES SHOULD BE USED. In Scientific writing, everything needs to be expressed in your own words to demonstrate your paraphrasing skills and understanding of the source materials.

Results

The Results is where a written summary of the results from a scientific study are presented. No interpretation or explanation of results should be included. The written summary is followed by a visual summary of the results.

Describe the overall trends in mean heart rate over the 60 minutes of the experiment at each temperature based on your graph. Ensure that the effect of different temperatures on mean heart rate are compared and contrasted.                                                                                           6 marks
The description should be a single paragraph of text, approximately 150 words in length. No interpretation or explanation of the results should be included.
Make sure the graph is appropriately referred to in the description. Put the description with an appropriate referral to the graph here:                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     1 marks
 
Put the graph with a descriptive title here: 6 marks
 

Discussion

The Discussion is where the results of a scientific study are interpreted and then explained using current scientific knowledge.

The Olympic Cycling Team are particularly interested in understanding two things:

  1. How the body regulates its temperature.
  2. Why strenuous physical exercise at 31°C results in a higher heart rate compared to the same exercise being undertaken at temperatures of 4°C, 11°C and 21°C as shown in Figure 1 above.
Describe the initial change in mean heart rate and explain why this change occurred. This should explain the results between 0 and 5 minutes: 
Summarise the main trends shown by mean heart rate at all four temperatures in Figure 1 that occur in the first five minutes and use this as a topic sentence for the paragraph.2marks
Explain what is causing the observed change in mean heart rate over the first five minutes.2marks
Write the response as a single, properly structured paragraph that includes a topic sentence, approximately 50 words in length. Use double line spacing. Onlyuse the source provided for question 3 in the Compulsory Sources sheet to complete this question. Do not use any other sources. Do not include direct quotes. 
Include a properly placed in-textcitation for the source provided, formatted following the CDU APA 7th Referencing Style.  
Put the summary and explanation, with in-text citation,for question 3 here: 
 
Describe and explain the role played by the integumentary system in thermoregulation after the first five minutes of exercise: 
Describe how heat production in the body changes during exercise. 3 marks
Identify the two mechanisms used by the skin (integumentary system) to remove excess heat from the body.  2 marks
Describe ALL steps in the homeostatic feedback loop, using Figure A in the Compulsory Sources sheet and your own knowledge, and explain how these two heat loss mechanisms are activated and reduce the stimulus. 7 marks
Write the response as a single, properly structured paragraph, approximately 200 words in length. Use double line spacing. Onlyuse the three sources provided for question 4 in the Compulsory Sources sheet to complete this question. Do not use any other sources. Do not include direct quotes.                
Include properly placed in-text citations for the three sources provided, formatted following the CDU APA 7th Referencing Style.                 
Put the description and explanation, with in-text citations,for question 4 here: 
 
Explain why heart rate increases more during exercise in a hot environment at 31°C compared to cooler environments at 4°C, 11°C and 21°C. This should explain the differences seen in the results between 5 and 60 minutes: 
Summarise the main trends shown by mean heart rate at all four temperatures in Figure 1 between 5 and 60 minutes and use this as a topic sentence for the paragraph. 2 marks
Explain how the two heat loss mechanisms identified in question 4b remove heat from the body.  2 marks
Explain why these two heat loss mechanisms cause an increase in heart rate.4 marks                           
Heat loss mechanisms are less effective in hot environments. Use your own reasoning and deduction to explain why this causes heart rate to increase more while exercising in a hot environment at 31°C compared to cooler environments at 4°C, 11°C and 21°C as shown in Figure 1. This cannot be done by paraphrasing the sources provided.3 marks
Write the response as a single, properly structured paragraph, approximately 300 words in length. Use double line spacing. Onlyuse the three sources provided for question 5 in the Compulsory Sources sheet to complete this question. Do not use any other sources. Do not include direct quotes.                
Include properly placed in-text citations for the three sources provided, formatted following the CDU APA 7th Referencing Style.                 
Put the explanation, with in-text citations,for question 5 here: 
 

References

References for four compulsory sources used in this assignment are provided below. They have been correctly formatted following the CDU APA 7th Referencing Style.

Betts, J. G., Young, K. A., Wise, J. A., Johnson, E., Poe, B., Kruse, D. H., Korol, O., Johnson, J. E., Womble, M., & DeSaix, P. (2013). Anatomy and physiology. OpenStax. https://openstax.org/books/anatomy-and-physiology/pages/1-introduction

González-Alonso, J. (2012). Human thermoregulation and the cardiovascular system. Experimental Physiology, 97(3), 340-346. https://doi.org/10.1113/expphysiol.2011.058701   

Harvard Health Publishing Staff. (2019, November 5). Heat is hard on the heart; simple precautions can ease the strain. Harvard Health Publishing. https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/heat-is-hard-on-the-heart-simple-precautions-can-ease-the-strain-201107223180  

Lamb, D. R. (1994). Formulation of carbohydrate-electrolyte beverages. In B. M. Marriott (Ed.), Fluid replacement and heat stress (pp. 23-36). National Academies Press. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/cdu/detail.action?docID=3377522   

Referencing information for the other three sources is provided at the end of the Compulsory Sources sheet.

 
 
ormat each of these references following the CDU APA 7th Referencing Style. All information required for these references is provided in the Compulsory Sources sheet.6marks
1 mark
Place the reference list with references for all seven compulsory sources used here: 
 

Marking Rubric

61 Marks Total  
Practical 3 completed (2 marks)Practical 4 completed (2 marks)Practical 5 completed (2 marks)
Communicating Information –Questions 1-2 Correct calculations of mean heart rate in graph. Correct graph type used to present results. Graph formatted correctly following scientific conventions. Excellent ability to interpret and describe trends in graphs.Communicating Information – Questions 1-2 Mostly correct calculations of mean heart rate in graph. Correct graph type used to present results. Graph mostly formatted correctly following scientific conventions. Satisfactory ability to interpret and describe trends in graphs.Communicating Information – Questions 1-2 Many or all calculations of mean heart rate incorrect in graph. Incorrect graph type used to present results or absent. Graph not formatted correctly following scientific conventions. Limited ability to interpret and describe trends in graphs.
Excellent: 10 – 13Satisfactory: 7 – 9Needs Improvement: 6 or less
Knowledge & Understanding – Questions 3-5 All academic conventions for summarising/paraphrasing followed. Good understanding of thermoregulation shown.Knowledge & Understanding – Questions 3-5 Some academic conventions for summarising/paraphrasing followed. Satisfactory understanding of thermoregulation shown.Knowledge & Understanding – Questions 3-5 Academic conventions for summarising/paraphrasing not followed. Limited understanding of thermoregulation shown.
Excellent: 21 – 27Satisfactory: 14 – 20Needs Improvement: 13 or less
Language usage Written in an academic style. Sentence structures consistently logical, clear and concise. Topic sentences included. Writing with few or no errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation and capitalisation which enhanced readability. Scientific terms and language used correctly throughout assignment.Language usage Mostly written in an academic style. Sentence structures generally logical, clear and concise. Topic sentences may not be included. Writing with some errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation and capitalisation. Errors may start to affect readability. Scientific terms and language used correctly throughout most of assignment.Language usage Not written in an academic style. Sentence structures often illogical, unclear and not concise. Lacks topic sentences. Writing with numerous errors in spelling, grammar, punctuation and capitalisation that affects readability. Scientific terms and language not used correctly in assignment.
Excellent: 4 – 5Satisfactory: 2.5 – 3.5Needs improvement: 2 or less
In-text citations In-text citations for all seven compulsory sources included. All in-text citations properly integrated and correctly formatted following CDU APA 7th Referencing Style.In-text citations In-text citations for all seven compulsory sources included. Some in-text citations not properly integrated and/or not formatted correctly following CDU APA 7th Referencing Style.In-text citations In-text citations for all seven compulsory sources not included or entirely absent. No in-text citations properly integrated and/or formatted correctly following CDU APA 7th Referencing Style.
Excellent: 3Satisfactory: 2Needs improvement: 1 or less
Reference list Reference list complete, includes all seven compulsory sources and is ordered alphabetically. All references correctly formatted following CDU APA 7th Referencing Style.Reference list Reference list complete, includes all seven compulsory sources but may not be ordered alphabetically. References have been mostly formatted correctly following CDU APA 7th Referencing Style.Reference list Reference list incomplete or missing. No compulsory sources included. Not ordered alphabetically. Reference list not formatted following CDU APA 7th Referencing Style.
Excellent: 6 – 7Satisfactory: 4 – 5Needs improvement: 3 or less
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