SOCIAL POLICY COMPARISION
In this paper, the impact of Covid 19 on the Australian population and Indian people is explained with the context and approaches utilized by Australia during Covid 19 in contrast to India. Along with that the challenges and issues were highlighted and analyzed that hinder the spread of Covid 19. The social and economic impacts were examined concerning each India and Australia.
Unlike Australia, with the infection curve flattened and no infection in the past few days in many places, India recently had a substantial increase in the incidence of COVID-9 daily infections. Australia started to loosen the lockdown as India expanded its countrywide shutdown to 31 May (Australia’s Experience in Dealing with COVID-19: Are There Lessons for India). Whilst India and Australia have many characteristics, such as a wide area, concentrations of its working people in and around the city’s metropolitan districts, and an important federal structure, the distinct aspects of COVID-19 between the two nations are several. In the later part, it is focused on the varied paths that Indian readers had since the first coronaviral case was registered in the province of Wuhan in China.
According to the WHO website, Australia has 7081 cases (time), 100 cases (deaths), and 11 confirmed cases, including two new cases, which are currently alive. For India, 11847 (time case), 3583 (death) and 6088 are the comparable statistics (new cases). In comparison with those figures, given that Australia has a population of 25.499.884, while India is 1,387,297.452 (as a percentage of the total population) Australia’s rate of infection is 0.02777%; mortality amounts to 1.412%; India, correspondingly, has 0.00855%.
In this case study, we have explained the following questions-
- What are the similarities and differences to the context and approaches of India and Australia?
- What are the challenges and issues concerning India and Australia?
- What is the social and economic impact of the pandemic in India and Australia?
SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES-
India has one of the lowest coronavirus test rates in the world, with Australia one of the highest. The incidence of coronavirus in India will most likely be considerably underestimated and with more tests, the infection rates would likely be significantly higher in India (Barbieri et al, 2020). There must be a comparable warning on the CFR of India which now stands at 3,024%. Not only do many deaths go undetected, particularly in rural areas, but some recent deaths have been attributable to the social stigma associated with the condition, which has not been traced to coronavirus. For CFR, India appears to do the same (or the worst of it), with a ratio of “crude case fatality (fitted for censorship) of 3·67% (with 95% of CI: 3·56–3·80)” by the specific issue of The Lancet: Infectious Diseases (published on 30 March 2020) but in the adjustment to demography and underestimation study in the same Lancet study the best fatality ratio estimate was made in Chinese.
In India changes in welfare systems have been introduced with economic globalization and its accompanying goals and agendas. In the 20th century following the two world wars, social protection networks were set up to shield the working class from changing wages to enable economic and political (Rao et al, 2020). The Welfare States were part of the advanced liberal economies. . In times of liberalization and worldwide flow of wealth, social policies which offset economic development’s adverse repercussions in the last century are even more essential. State policy changes are essential to an understanding of the working conditions throughout India, as migratory workers from the same country have varied experiences dependent on their destination. To measure the ease and chances to participate in destination states, the interstate index analyses several social, economic, and political factors.
Launched CHIRAGVaani, the local platform for the Interactive Voice Response System (IVRS), a democratic area for data sharing and the dissemination of information about sustainable alimentary systems, right before the shutdown (Rao et al, 2020). As migratory workers from Chakai locked down, they began to use the number as a hotline throughout the country. We were looking for telephone interviews with some of them following a snowballing strategy. Others, looking for aid, recorded on the platform their experiences.
Australia has 3.1 people/km2 of population density, whereas India has 464 people/km2 of population density (Reuters, 2021). This provides Australia with a major benefit from India when it comes to combating an illness that spreads quickly from one person to the next. ‘Safe dissociation’ in Australia is considerably simpler to implement than in India. Indeed, the great advantage that Australia has is might be underestimated by just comparing these population densities, because a lot of the population of Australia is concentrated in Sydney and Melbourne (Kannur, 2020). India’s list of highly inhabited cities, by comparison, is lengthy and much more populous than Sydney and Melbourne in semester-urban regions.
Therefore, although the infection curve has dropped to the extent that it ‘bends,’ rather than ‘flattens,’ throughout Australia, the performance of New South Wales & Victoria, with two major cities: Sydney and Melbourne, has been incongruous. There are some indications that India’s metropolitan regions have recorded a greater proportion of the COVID 19 occurrence in the country to support this speculation as a probable reason for Australia’s better Registro in Covid-19.
Australia’s effectiveness in controlling a pandemic can in part be ascribed to not necessarily repeatable structural benefits, notably the status of the country as an island nation, making the closing of borders relatively simple (Child et al, 2021) But the reaction of the country has also been distinguished by successful actions, policy and leadership practices, achieved via a strong public-private partnership, which may be transmitted and repeated elsewhere.
It talked to dozens of business and public sector executives who have shaped Australia’s COVID-19 response to teaching policymakers the lessons(Child et al, 2021). Three issues were identified as key decision-making and action facilitators:
- Create confidence with people’
- data-led decision-making to encourage
- successful cross-border cooperation
Australian people have had a part in the effectiveness of health treatments and public confidence-building is a vital factor in pandemic decision making and communication. Most Australians have followed regulations and remedies, such as hotel quarantine standards, lock-down measures, masks, and quick testing. These techniques, while not flawless, were somewhat effective in reducing infection in the early phases of the pandemic and in suppressing later outbreaks in the Victorian and Southern states.
In the end, individuals must adhere to health and physical-distant measures that slow down the transmission of the virus. Such compliance hinges on individuals trusting in and supporting their data and information in the government’s policy requirements. The coordinated reaction to the epidemic in the corporate and public sectors, at all levels, helped create this confidence in Australia.
The abilities of Australia to co-ordinate a united national response while enabling countries to maintain their autonomy, take decisions, and learning from each other have been a significant aspect of Australia’s reaction. The newly created National Cabinet was also a remarkable feature of this, assembled to provide a prominent intergovernmental platform to coordinate government response to the COVID 19 epidemic and to enhance collaboration among the various government levels. It was the first body in Australia to set up since the Second World War and it provided an effective environment for decision-making and problem-solving when it occurred.
Another benefit to Australia over India is the fact that it is safely located in, in, and outside of Sydney and Melbourne, with a lower volume of domestic and international traffic. In Australia’s borders closed with the rest of the world, significant work has been needed in chosen airports – Sidney, Melbourne, and Brisbane – to manage the disease’s spread through ‘community transmission.’ In contrast, India has many entrance and departure points to cope with porous borders.
CHALLENGES AND ISSUES
No region of the world has been left unaffected by COVID-19 and India is among the hardest-hit countries worldwide. The case rises every day in India (Bajpai, 2020). India had more than 2.3 million by 10 August, with 42 percent of new cases coming from Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, and Bihar just 3 weeks after a million illnesses were affected by the disease (Barberie et al, 2020). The COVID-19 was verified by 46,188 instances of mortality. Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Delhi, and Uttar Pradesh are among the most impacted states in India. Another major worry is the emergence of new inner sections of the country (Bajpai, 2020). There are more favorable reports from four states in East India: Odisha, Bihar, Assam, and West Bengal. The two primary causes for this rise in rural regions have been the return of migrants from large towns which have not been screened or are asymptomatic and poor health facilities in rural areas. 13 districts (across 8 states and union territory) of the overall 739 districts in India are killed by 1 in seven Covid-19 districts. The following districts are Assam’s Kamrup Metro, Bihar’s Patna, Jharkhand’s Ranchi, Kerala’s Alappuzha, and Thiruvananthapuram, Odisha’s Ganjam and UP’s Lucknow, Hooghly’s, Howrah, Kolkata, and Maldah’s North. Nearly 9% of active cases in India and roughly 14% in COVID-19 fatalities are in those districts (Barberie et al, 2020). Throughout the spring and summer, the situation at COVID-19 in India has significantly deteriorated and might worsen further on the current journey.
Males and women’s FGDs indicated changes in migration and work regulatory viewpoints. With more knowledge and awareness, the younger generation of males was unwilling to engage in physical, agricultural work and prefers urban settings. The nature of family duties has also impacted the choice of employment and place. 47% of the migrants questioned were married, had children, and were between the ages of 24-40. Inadequate housing, sanitary amenities, electricity, cooking fuel, and drinking water. Workers also expressed concern regarding family life in villages: with over half of the households eating less and less frequently, the food consumption was lowered.
To design and put in place an epidemic control plan to control and restrict infection spreads throughout the country, India does not currently do so (Barberie et al, 2020). With COVID-19, India faces another issue, a huge migrant labor crisis, when other nations are suffering dual public health crises and the resulting economic depression.
The first incidence of COVID-19 occurred in Australia in January 2020. By November 2020, the government has reported around 28,000 cases with over 900 deaths. Although the bulk of illnesses originally originated abroad, by November 2020 local transmissions had made 80% of the total number of cases acquired in Australia. The biggest effect was noticed in Victoria, with more than 20,000 people killed as a result of the second wave of illnesses, from July to October 2020. Among persons aged above 70 years, the biggest loss of life occurred with around 840 fatalities in Australia. Health officials also noted that lock-ups and other limitations had a range of adverse health impacts, particularly on mental health. The Deputy Head of Mental health medical departments of the Australian Government stated “there are also other concerns, such as isolation, soullessness, and anguish, while physical distance helps protect individuals from contracted coronavirus”
Cracks caused by this epidemic in the public health infrastructure. This, of course, has more than ever tested our system (Child et al, 2021). If you think of it as a battle, the resources we have been able, and we are demonstrating our vulnerabilities, have reached the ultimate maximum. One of the ways it has been expressed is that several other public health projects that are essential for Australians’ health and well-being have also been impacted.
Regardless of their socio-economic profile, the continuous prolongation of the lockdown has kept migrant laborers without jobs, income, and food. By 5 June, the Stranded Workers Action Network (SWAN) national aid services engaged with about 34,000 workers and indicated that 50 percent of employees had feeds left within 1 day, and 64 percent had fewer than 100 rupees (Child et al, 2021). A private firm operating in Australia must support a foreign company or manufacturer to have a product produced overseas for usage (Barberie et al, 2020). This can generate uncertainty and restrict industries’ capacity to work effectively with public authorities and suppliers in dealing with interruptions in the supply chain. In periods like COVID-19, a manufacturing company may decide and/or renege on orders from items to divert to other countries, this is complicated further (Reuters, 2021). It provides an opaque policy framework that restricts the modeling of supply and eventually impacts anesthesia service provision.
SOCIAL AND ECONOMIC IMPACTS
Perhaps one of Australia’s major lessons is the political reaction to the economic challenge faced by the lockdown. In the beginning, a parallel exists between the Australian and the Indian governments’ two-step responses (Reuters, 2021). The two stimulus packages formed the response of the two and the second package was significantly greater than the first. The resemblance however ends there. Australia’s first stimulus package was unveiled, at a billion dollars. It was mainly tackled by (a) providing fiscal incentives for investment in the company, (b) improving corporate cash flow through raising employers’ money flow and assisting apprentices and apprentices, and (c) non-tax ways.
The aid package of India did not however have the key feature, i.e. rapid cash transfers to the needy, in Australia. Instead, India’s food transfers assistance plan was focused on enhanced PDS coverage and credits to several organizations including small enterprises, farmers, and the informal sector. (Pohekar, 2021). While these measures were very helpful, the spirit behind the second Australian assistance package lacked the urgency of direct financial transfers. There was no quick implementation of the enhanced salaries offered to the staff at MGNREGA, given that most of the activity underway at MGNREGA has stopped.
A major downside to Australia is that most of India’s jobs are in the form of migrants working in the informal sector away from home and that it is not simple, as it is in Australia, to create and implement programs with employees (Kannur, 2020). In recent years, the export of these goods has led to Australia’s prosperity and China is the main partner for Australia’s trade
Because of the risks to older individuals and the adoption of measures for the abolition of the virus, the study is essential to detect and mitigate the psychological effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on older Australians (Pohekar et al, 2021). Persons with long-term conditions, low socioeconomic and minority origins, indigenous groups, and elderly care residents are most affected. Some of these consequences reflect longstanding societal difficulties associated with aging, which are intransigent and sometimes ignored.
Mental and health problems-
Older people are increasingly concerned about public health measures to suppress the virus, including social differentiation, limitations on public transportation, shutdowns, clinics, public institutions and community, sports, and interest organizations.
The pandemic can make ageism worse. There has been discussion in certain nations whether governments need to do anything to safeguard those at the greatest danger or whether the elderly need to be sacrificed to the benefit of the economy, older people more prone to the virus and less cost-effective (Kannur, 2020).
Indigenous people of Australia are particularly vulnerable and the danger of viral transmission increases as indigenous homes tend to be intergenerational as well as live in cramped and insufficient dwellings(Kannur, 2020). The absence of adequate cultural information and lack of interaction with mainstream health care is exacerbating the danger to indigenous populations.
Old facilities for care
The failure to visit individuals in old healthcare institutions can lead to greater social insulation, vulnerability to abuse and neglect, and a poorer result for the family, friends, and allied health services.
To link the COVID-19 recovery packages and climate-change policies, regions and urban centers are well-positioned. It accounts for around 64 percent of public spending on climate and environmental projects. The COVID-19 problem may be made a further opportunity by utilizing this authority to invest in the green transition and appropriately targeted local needs. It is also essential to not lose sight of long-term, large-scale social objectives, such as increased inclusivity and the response to the climatic changes if we are to respond successfully to COVID-19. Capable of helping build resilience. Thus, new methods of working can be experienced.
Above Covid 19 described the influence of Australia and the Indians with the backdrop and tactics used in Covid 19 against India by Australia. In addition, the obstacles and problems that limit the distribution of Covid 19 were emphasized and evaluated. The social and eco-impacts in each of India and Australia were investigated.
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Reuters. (2021, May 3). Australia backs fundraising drive in response to India’s health crisis.
Australia’s Experience in Dealing with COVID-19: Are There Lessons for India? (n.d.).University Practice Connect. https://practiceconnect.azimpremjiuniversity.edu.in/australias-experience-in-dealing-with-covid-19-are-there-lessons-for-India/
Kannur, H. P. V. J. (2020, May 1). The social impact of COVID-19 on India. The Bridge Chronicle. https://www.thebridgechronicle.com/opinion/social-impact-covid-19-india-49313
Pohekar, S., Raut, A., Tembhare, V., & Sakharkar, S. (2021). Addressing Mental Health Issue. During COVID-19 Pandemic. Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, 15(2).
Social policy and migrant workers in the times of COVID. The European journal of development research, 32(5), 1639-1661.
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