Data Analysis and Findings

Data Analysis and Findings

Qualitative data analysis technique called thematic analysis includes reading the data collection and looking for patterns in the meaning of the data to determine the theme. Making sense of the data is an active reflexive process in which the researcher’s personal experience is important. On Instagram, though, any company can open a store and tag things in postings. These tags direct customers to the company’s website so they may make their purchases there rather than in the app. Users can add product posts from both Checkout-enabled brands and those without access to it to their own wishlists, which are kept under the saved tab (Kudaibergenova, 2019). To add a product to the wishlist, users simply press the save button on any product page within the app. Saving money and compiling a wishlist may encourage some Gen Z buyers to purchase later. Or they might put products in their Checkout shopping basket and wait to make purchases.

Themes of the study-

Themes: Usage Codes: Helps in understanding the popularity of the social media platform.    Themes: Purchase Codes: Gen Z is influenced to purchase trendy stuff through Instagram
Themes: Trust Codes: The respondents rely on the platform in many ways  Themes: Engagement Codes: How it affects the business of a brand through Instagram engagement
Themes: Ease of use Codes: It will enable us to understand the reach of the platform to the Gen Z  Themes: Homophily Codes: How the influencer’s homophily influences these youngsters to purchase stuff.  
Themes: Expertise in Influencer Codes: The influencers endorse products that come under their expertise. A fashion influencer endorses fashion, whereas a tech influencer endorses technology.Themes: Quality Codes: Gen Z has trust in the quality of brands available on Instagram.

Prior to starting the investigation, ethical permission was received. Participants were given a signed document and an informed consent form to inform them that they had the right to withdraw at any time. This is done so that they fully understand what they are doing (Djafarova and Bowes, 2021).  Participants are assured that their names will be deleted and their data will be destroyed once they are assigned to the project. They also received the transcript upon request. All focus group participants were made aware that the entire process would keep their identities a secret. This study introduces a provocative thematic analysis method. “Data on lived experiences, such as interviews or narratives, are a requirement for the analysis. Themes drawn from the analysis are data-driven, or anchored on data and participant experience. The analysis starts with a meaning-seeking phase and progresses to the identification and relation of many meanings.” Instead of measuring their frequency, the analysis aims to understand the intricacy of the meanings in the data.

The importance of thematizing meaning has been highlighted as one of the few elements that connect many qualitative approaches (Lim et al., 2022) indicating that some qualitative research techniques are more effective than others.  Although various methods occasionally fail they differ in their ontological and epistemological pillars. Several methods are employed to thematize meaning, however several include Ontological and epistemological clarification would be advantageous to them.

The questionnaire used for the survey measures some of the most important aspects of use of Instagram and other social media platforms by the GenZ population. The mid-to-late 1990s are used by academics and the general public as commencing birth years and the early 2010s as terminating birth years. Currently, it includes people who are 9-22 years of age.  The study has avoided typing in individual functions like MEAN or MODE by using Excel’s descriptive statistics tool. For our data set, a single button click will return a dozen different statistics. Excel must have the Data Analysis Toolpak loaded in order to perform descriptive statistics calculations. In Excel, select the “Data” tab. “Data visualisation is facilitated by descriptive statistics. It makes it possible for data to be presented in a meaningful and understandable fashion, which therefore makes it possible for the data set in question to be more easily interpreted. A presentation or summary of grouped data that has been divided into mutually exclusive classes and the number of occurrences in each class is called a frequency distribution. It enables the presentation of raw data in a more structured and orderly manner.”

Unlike inferential statistics (or inductive statistics), descriptive statistics try to summarize the sample without using data to obtain information about the population that the sample is supposed to represent. This basically means that descriptive statistics are usually non-parametric statistics and are not generated based on probability theory like inferential statistics. Both inferential statistics and descriptive statistics are used to draw the main conclusions from the data analysis.

 
Mean0.76
Standard Error0.046329565
Median0.775
Mode#N/A
Standard Deviation0.131039798
Sample Variance0.017171429
Kurtosis1.461680062
Skewness-0.995493381
Range0.42
Minimum0.5
Maximum0.92
Sum6.08
Count8

            Theme: Usage

The data reveal that there are 50% of the GenZ user of the platform who are not using any other social media platform. There are other social media platforms like the TikTok and facebook which does not have so much of users as that of Instagram alone. The TRA theory as discussed on the literature review has a great actualisation when the data is presented.  Around 77 people from the sample agree to the fact that Instagram is their most used social media platform. There are around 54% GenZ who agree to have spent over 4hours a day on this application.

Interviewee: How much Screen time you spent on Instagram on a daily basis?

Respondent: “Most of time there is an ad and that ultimately leads to Instagram.”

The typical “influencer” model, which promotes an ideal lifestyle to followers through the purchase of items, sponsorship deals, brand trips, and other activities, dominated the decade of 2010. However, that era appears to be over for Gen Z (Bashari & Fazl-Ersi, 2020). The creative economy is king as people get wiser about when and how they are being sold to.

By the calculation of the summary statistic it was found that the data obtained is Positively skewed as the value is between -0.5 and +0.5.

The normal distribution is the most common type of data and probability distribution. It is defined by a symmetrical bell-shaped curve. However, the normal distribution can also be inflated if there are significant factors. Skewness and kurtosis can be used to determine this distortion. The study examines some of the various types of distortion that can happen in a normal curve in this tutorial, which is named “The Simplified and Complete Guide to Skewness and Kurtosis.”

Theme: Purchase

Gen Z prefers to purchase using Instagram

They can find new businesses, goods, and services on Instagram that align with their values and interests. Instagram makes it possible for users to shop and make purchases using the app, which is practical and simple for them. Instagram presents them with material that expresses a distinct and uplifting vision of how the brands want to improve the world, which Gen Z cares about. The study observes that the platform is a user-friendly way to find clothes of their choice as 88% of them have agreed. The above descriptive statistics reveal that the trust of the GenZ on the products sold on Instagram is more than any other platforms like TikTok or facebook.

Interviewee: How often do you buy from an Insta store?

Respondent: “I generally thrift my clothes from Insta stores.”

Respondents started with basic preliminary Questions regarding fashion, in general, were used to establish rapport and soothe the participants before the five components were introduced. The first went after participants’ use of social media (SM) and Instagram, followed by questions about Instagram marketing and how it affects consumers’ buying patterns.

Marketers have noticed that generation Z, sometimes known as “Gen Z,” has more frequent para-social interactions with online influencers than previous generations. Since Gen Z was born between 1995 and 2010, they are adept at using IT tools as well as navigating restrictions to access media on their mobile devices and forging international connections through SNS (Gupta et al., 2019). ‘Digital natives’ are a new consumer segment among Generation Z who have a significant impact on SNS distribution platforms, particularly Instagram.

Theme: Trust

Some research has found a favorable association between trust and Gen Z users’ Instagram purchasing intentions. Possible justifications include:

Trust in the Instagram marketplace can affect buy intentions and trickle down to tour programme sellers. Influencers’ physical attractiveness, parasocial interactions, and credibility can all have a beneficial effect on the purchasing intentions of their followers. Users’ purchasing intentions can be influenced by their confidence in an influencer’s emotional state, social duty, and fan base (Colubi & Kontoghiorghes, 2021).

Interviewee: Do you think there are fake influencers who promote just for money?

Respondent: “There are some but most of them promote genuine products.”

 Along with brand recognition, trust can buffer the connection between social bonding and purchase intention. Because it provides a wide range of products, the Instagram marketplace, which was established in 2020, has quickly grown to become one of the most well-known SNS marketplaces. When Gen Z tourists are making trip plans, they frequently look for innovative tourism items on Instagram (such as half-day Italian cooking sessions with locals).

Similar to this, the trust transfer theory suggests that Gen Z travellers’ trust in the Instagram marketplace can be transferred to their trust in Instagram-based tour programme providers (referred to as “trust in sellers” from here on). As a result, in addition to their trust in sellers, Gen Z tourists place a high value on trustworthiness in the Instagram marketplace. The rise of social media has given marketers new ways to connect with consumers. Through effective implementation, influencer marketing can become a natural part of people’s lives on social media following influencers’ lives instead of advertising.

Social networking systems (SNS) like Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, and Instagram are among the most well-known and widely used ones available today (Srbakoski, 2023). More than ever, customers are consulting other consumers to help them make judgements about what to buy.

Theme: Engagement

“Driving consumer brand engagement is essential for firms. With continual disruptions in traditional consumer brand communications and increased demand for consumer attention and noise, firms utilize increased engagement to drive brand loyalty and resonance. However, the mechanisms by which consumers engage with brands, particularly through social media, are less clear.” The value of Co-relation is 1 when studied with the engagement of Instagram. The strength of the linear relationship between two variables, x and y, is expressed by a number called the linear correlation coefficient obtained from the given data. The direction of the linear relationship between x and y is denoted by the linear correlation coefficient. The linear link is strong when the correlation coefficient, or r, is close to 1 or 1, and weak when it is close to 0 (Djafarova & Bowes, 2021). Without making assumptions about the cause, the Pearson coefficient is a measure of the magnitude and direction of the linear correlation between two variables, and for this study, engagement with Instagram users and brands are highly correlated. “Correlation, not causation, is demonstrated by the Pearson coefficient. The range of Pearson coefficients is +1 to -1, where +1 denotes a positive correlation, -1 denotes a negative correlation, and 0 denotes no link.”

According to the Source Credibility Theory, which applies to electronic word of mouth, consumers view people with a lot of subscribers as more attractive and trustworthy. Source credibility is the view of the information source by the consumer based on its attractiveness, dependability, and subject-matter expertise (Djafarova and Rushworth, 2017). Any product information shared online by potential customers is referred to as EWOM.

 Theme: Ease of Use

There are 92% of the users have responded that Instagram has the ease to use than any other platform. In the upcoming year, as Gen Z social media users begin to realize their digital relationships through real-world interactions, the divide between content creators and followers will begin to dissolve. According to Instagram, nearly a third of Gen Z users eagerly anticipate in-person interactions with their favorite influencers, such as meet & greets and creative conventions. 

Interviewee: Do you open Instagram more times than any other application?

Respondent: “Each time my phone is unlocked I subconsciously open Instagram.”

The Gen Z generation is likewise keen to follow their favorite influencers into new media. For instance, more than 40% of respondents indicated that they would want to listen to podcasts by their favorite artists. Shoppable posts are Instagram’s best feature for promoting the brand’s growth as reported by the respondents during the interview. Customers can view the things one have for sale in these posts and buy them immediately through the app, or they can save them for later in a wish list. These posts take up a separate space on the brand’s page. When the respondents save one of these posts, Instagram automatically produces it. The ability to be featured on Instagram’s shopping channel, which users may access through their explore tab, is another benefit of creating shoppable photos that makes the user experience better.

Theme: Homophily

The Instagram aesthetics make them the most Homophily n nature. These days,  think Instagram serves as their social media center while TikTok is focused on providing bite-sized entertainment. Facebook makes events and groups possible. Gen Z are highly cognizant of the distinctions in content as well: Instagram and Facebook both support single photographs, but TikTok exclusively displays videos. Millennials use Instagram as a photo journal and Facebook for blog-like updates that solicit comments.

Social media information is viewed in this light by Gen Zers because they value connection. They accept that social media platforms bring together people who share their interests and likes, and they expect algorithms to work for you.They enjoy being able to connect with others through all three applications, whether those individuals are friends, family, coworkers, or online acquaintances – or brands, which are now more than ever seen as real people (Dewi et al., 2022). Each platform has grown to make deeper relationships and dialogues possible. They see the time they spend on social media as a time saver because they can connect with each person without contacting them individually. By using this application, Gen Zers feel they have a social life.

Themes: Expertise of Influencer

According to a Gen Zer, “Instagram is a brief snapshot of your life. Although Instagram is getting more informal again with the ability to post 10 photographs at once, it is often more formal. Instagram used to be how they displayed themselves until recently. Facebook is more of a life update platform. “There are also communities on Facebook that are very well-liked, and the posts are longer and more intimate. I particularly enjoy creating events for my friends on Facebook (Dewi et al., 2022). Because it’s less of a social network where you see people’s images, TikTok is the app that I find to be the most comparable to Twitter. People make odd videos that are trend-following.”

Gen Zers are yearning for the day when their Instagram feed contained only beautiful photographs due to the resemblance of the short-form films that are currently prevalent on the platform. Gen Zers claim to want the videos to remain on TikTok even if they recognize that short-form content can catch their attention. Additionally, Gen Zers anticipate sound when watching TikTok videos.

They prefer sound-free movies, calming voices, subdued musical accompaniment, or, preferably, just plain posts because they typically peruse through Instagram feeds in silent mode. Most people concur that Instagram can be useful for preserving image while also making it approachable and casual for clients (Colubi & Kontoghiorghes, 2021). When Gen Z employs the word informal, they are expressing their desire for genuineness and approachability. They appreciate how simple it is to communicate with and shop on Instagram.

Themes: Quality

Interviewee: Do the stuff from Instagram of same quality as the ones brought from store?

Respondent: “I prefer to buy from Instagram because of the ease of buying.”

The study finds out that the Gen Z respondents feel that the quality of products is reliable, The first step to social media success is identifying the target audience. Consequently, developing a social strategy that works requires an awareness of how various generations utilize social media. The Gen Z generation is increasingly using social media, yet they are the least likely to follow brands on these platforms (Haenlein et al., 2020). Gen Z is looking to build relationships with current cohort members and advice on buyers they trust more than brands.

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