The first chapter highlighted the background developed aim and objective based on the research topic,  which will help the readers to understand the main concept and the ideas regarding energy consumption and the way of controlling it.The researcher has used various journals, articles and websites for reviewing the information in the literature review section in a critical way. An appropriate framework of IAT sensor model has been implemented here in the study. The literature gap has also been recognised properly. In the case of methods, the researcher used different processes and techniques like philosophy, approach, design data collection method as well as data analysis for collecting information related to energy consumption.

The result section will discuss various devices that smart homes are known to install in order to transform into energy efficient and sustainable residences. These systems make the homes efficient enough to make use of renewable resources to power the various machines in a house and optimise the consumption process of the machines.  Some of these systems including Light Automation Systems, Smart Energy Management Systems (EMS), and solar powered blackout shades, Smart Ventilation and Energy consumption monitoring systems will be discussed. Moreover, the recommendation, limitation and future scope of the study had also been mentioned in suitable manner.


This research has been proposed as well as completed under strict supervision of my project supervisor. In the most sincere manner, I would wish to express sincerest gratitude to him for relentless guidance, advice, patience alongside encouragement throughout the entire study. I owe my colleagues from the engineering department greatest appreciation for their unwavering patience as well as support for my numerous excuses. I would not forget to express my sincerest gratitude to my friends alongside family members for their generous support as well as attitude.

Table of Contents

Abstract                                                                                                                          2

Acknowledgements                                                                                                       3

Chapter 1: Introduction                                                                                                   6

1.1 Background                                                                                                       6

1.2 Research Problems                                                                                                  6

1.3 Research Motivation                                                                                         7

Chapter 2: Literature Review                                                                                      9

2.1 Introduction                                                                                                         9

2.2 Analysis                                                                                                               9

2.3 Theoretical Underpinning                                                                                 13

2.4 Literature Gap                                                                                                   15

2.5 Summary                                                                                                           15

Chapter 3: Methodology                                                                                             16

Research structure                                                                                                   16

Research philosophy                                                                                               16

Research Approach                                                                                                 17

Research Design                                                                                                      18

Data analysis                                                                                                           18

Data Collection and analysis                                                                             18

Sampling and population                                                                                        19

Chapter 4: Results                                                                                                       21

4.1 Energy efficient smart homes                                                                           21

4.1.1. Solar Powered Blinds in tiny homes                                                       21

4.1.2. Smart energy management system                                                          22

4.1.3 Light Automation System                                                                        23

4.1.4 Smart ventilation                                                                                      24

4.1.5 Monitoring energy consumption                                                              25

Chapter 5: Discussion                                                                                                 26

Chapter 6: Conclusion                                                                                                28

6.1 Conclusion                                                                                                        28

6.2 Linking with Objectives                                                                                    28

6.2.1 To highlight the importance of energy consumption                               28

6.2.2 To analyse the ways of controlling and reducing energy consumption   29

6.2.3 To evaluate the advantages of renewable resources for energy consumption                                                                                                      29

6.2.4 To address the challenges related to energy consumption                       29

6.3 Recommendation                                                                                              29

6.4 Limitation                                                                                                          30

6.5 Future Scope                                                                                                     30

References                                                                                                                    31

Chapter 1: Introduction

1.1 Background

Energy is considered as a main part for achieving sustainable development goals. The maintenance of energy in a proper way can be used for the extending access of electricity, improvement of cooking fuel from decreasing wasteful energy to save the environment from air pollution. In order to save energy for smart homes, it is also beneficial as it is used for decreasing water pollution and helps in conserving natural resources. Therefore, energy consumption develops a healthy environment for the surrounding people and for nature, animals and other creatures.

1.2 Research Problems

Some problems can be recognised for energy consumption. The basic factors that affect the process of energy consumption in the smart house for maintaining sustainability are outdoor temperature, characteristics of the home, human habits, use of electronic appliances and more. All these factors are considered as issues for maintaining sustainability. The outdoor temperature is a problem because of different situations and different seasons, which individuals use and waste energy at the same time.

On the other hand, the nature of a house can also be a problem due to air leakage, thermal envelope and also for doors and windows. Poorly insulated roof space, walls and foundation can be the reasons why the homes lose around 40% of the heat. The number of Windows and doors in the house including its size, energy rating and quality as well as exposure can affect the energy consumed for heating purposes. Some habits of the individuals waste energy massively. For example,  an individual using a baseboard heater for cold and hot water the person remains the tap open even after collecting the water, which is another cause of energy wastage.

Using excessive electronic appliances in the house consumes a lot of energy. In an interactive house people use various electronic devices for cooking, studying, relaxing and for other purposes which waste energy. Decreasing the consumption by using natural light, air and other factors can be effective for saving electricity. Therefore, it is important for the household people who understand the way of using energy and applying it when required.

 Presently the most common problem that can be rating guys regarding the wastage of energy is the use of electronics devices are appliances in the house. Thus, the study is going to analyse and evaluate many ways and practices to save energy by using Renewable and the Natural sources

1.3 Research Motivation

The purpose of the study is to understand the importance of energy consumption and the way to control and reduce the energy consumption.

The objectives of the study

  • To highlight the importance of energy consumption
  • To analyse the ways of controlling and reducing energy consumption
  • To evaluate the advantages of renewable resources for energy consumption
  • To address the challenges related to energy consumption

The Research questions based on the study are:

  • What is the importance of energy consumption?
  • What are the ways of controlling and reducing energy consumption?
  • What are the advantages of renewable resources for energy consumption?
  • What are the challenges related to energy consumption?

The study is important and effective because it will help to understand the importance of energy consumption for the smart home approach in sustainable housing. This will evaluate the ways of controlling and reducing energy consumption.

The research structure is also evaluated, which consists of six important chapters. The first chapter is based on the introduction of the research topic where the researcher highlights the aim and objective, the research question, background of the topic, the problem statement, and rationale as well as research hypothesis. In the next chapter, the researcher highlights the section of literature review that collects information from various websites, articles or journals related to the research topic in order to review it for making the study critical. This section includes a suitable framework and identifies the literature gap of the study.

The third chapter is methodology in which the researcher highlights all the methods Tools and techniques that are mainly used in order to collect information for concluding the study. The fourth chapter is result or analysis in which the researcher uses methods like primary or secondary data collection method for conducting survey, interview or thematic analysis for the outcome of the study. The discussion chapter is also included, which evaluates the result and the method of collecting information from the previous chapter. The last chapter is Conclusion and Recommendation in which the research concludes the overall study highlighting all the chapters specifically. It includes recommendation linking with objectives limitation and future scope of the study.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

2.1 Introduction

The introduction section of the literature review chapter of the dissertation describes the key points of the topic within a form of literature. This literature review chapter will explain the importance of the energy consumption for the smart homes in the contemporary times. Moreover, the entire study will also describe in detail the processes through which one can try to control and reduce the consumption of energy for presenting his or her home as a smart home.

On the other hand, the literature review section will also depict the methods or the techniques through which the smart homes can use the renewable energy more efficiently. This section of the dissertation will also describe the gaps in the literature review conducted by the other researchers. Theoretical underpinning section will analyse the topic under consideration by presenting a particular theory or model.

2.2 Analysis

Importance and benefits of reducing energy consumption for making a smart home

The expectation of conducting this literature review section of the entire dissertation is to fulfil the desire of the readers to know more about the significance and methods of controlling energy consumptions (Shahbaz et al., 2019). However, The system of energy management in the smart homes enables the owners of the homes to control over the usage of energy or to reduce the consumption of conventional energy. This management technique of energy consumption provides a number of strategies using which the smart homeowners can easily reduce the amount in their electricity bills. The significance or the benefits of reducing the conventional energy consumption will be described below.

Cost reduction facilities

The smart homes energy management system allows the owners of the smart homes to take greater control on the consumption of energy. The implementation of the automation system enables the home owners to control the temperature, adjusting the turning on and the turning off lights. On the other hand, the opening and the closing of the windows in the smart homes also follow the technique of automation based on the artificial intelligence. Sometimes in the rural atmosphere, the owners of the smart homes are also enabled to use this automation technique. However, this automation technique needs a huge amount of energy for running successfully (Shahbaz et al., 2019).  Therefore, if the smart homeowners use the renewable energy for running this automation system instead of conventional energy, they will be able to save a huge amount of money.

Moreover, the heating, the lighting, the cooling and the services of water increase the operational cost if the conventional energy is used (Kirikkaleli et al., 2021). Controlling the use of conventional energy helps the users to save money. The pandemic and the lockdown period have taught how important it is to save the money. A huge amount of money is saved with the effective management of the energy consumption system.

Carbon footprint is decreased

Carbon footprint of a particular property is referred to as the overall quantity of greenhouse gases that are generated due to several actions of the owners of that property. This carbon footprint causes tremendous effect on the lifestyles of the owners of the smart homes. This can cause serious health issues like cancer of the skin, diabetes, asthma, PCOS and other lung problems (Fahmy et al., 2018). Moreover, the sustainability of the environment is decreased because of extensive levels of emissions of the greenhouse gases. Therefore, to decrease the level of carbon footprint the owners of the smart homes should take proper actions to save the  consumption of energy. Effective reduction of the energy consumption can decrease carbon footprint if the homeowners find the substitutes for running different electronics in their homes instead of conventional energy systems.

The process of controlling energy consumption for making the home smart

A number of ways through the owners of the smart homes can reduce the consumption of energy. These ways will be discussed one by one.

Smart detector for water leak and freezing of water

The smart detectors for identifying the leaks of water can be installed for presenting the home as a smart home. The other and the most vital benefit of implementing this type of detector in the homes is that it is very efficient to reduce the amount of consumption in the households as this at the right time identifies the problem (Ragazzon and Prins, 2018). However, when there is the presence of the occurrence of water leakage, the households naturally have to face the flood like conditions. Another problem is created related to the water when suddenly in the winter season the water freezes into the pip[er. Sometimes this becomes the reason for the bursting of puppies. Therefore the use and the implementation of the smart detector in this case is very helpful as it saves a huge amount of energy by informing the house owners about the problem previously.

The smart use of the thermostats

A smart thermostat can reduce the cost for heating in the households to at least 10 to 22 percent. The heating and the cooling process in a household requires a lot of energy, which generates a bill containing a huge amount of money every time. However, in a smart thermostat a sensory part can sensor the heat and the cold temperature. This smart thermostat enables the users to heat or to cool anything upto the necessary temperature (Koupaei et al., 2020). However, when the temperature level exceeds, the thermostat can easily identify the problem with its temperature sensor. The owner then put off the switch of the electric.

Smart bulbs

Smart bulbs are nothing but the light bulbs that can be connected to mobile applications. Only a WiFi network is required for this system. One can anytime turn on and turn off to save the energy using the mobile (Koupaei et al., 2020).  There is also the presence of some smart bulbs in the market that can detect the time on which one returns home from outside.

Techniques of using the renewable energy for making the home smart

The solar power system

One can use the rays of the sun as the source of energy for his or her household use. The effective implementation of the solar photovoltaic panel is helpful to generate electricity for household usage. This solar panel can be easily installed on the roof of the house. The solar panels adopt the powerful rays of the sun and transform this power into the form of electricity. However, this electricity generated by the solar panel can warm up the entire house within a very short time and can easily supply power to the electric devices of the household. The electric energy is generated through the solar panels during the daytime when the scorching heat of the Sun provides straight rays (Lehtola and Zahedi, 2019). However, sometimes in the less sunny weather also the Solar Panel works effectively to generate the electric energy. However, the power generated by these solar panels can be reserved for future use, especially in the night time when there are no sunrays. This solar power can be stored in the solar batteries. Using the solar power as the source of renewable energy not only saves cost but it also increases the sustainability of the home. Sustainability is one of the important characteristics of a smart home.

Solar heating system

Throughout the year, one can use the solar energy for heating the water. The system of solar heating is also dependent on the working of the solar panel, which can be mounted in the roof and can be hung from the wall. The generated power easily heats the water up. This water can also be saved in a cylinder for hot water for future use. Around five square metres of space is needed for implementing the solar panel and the hot water cylinder (Mofijur et al., 2019). However, the installation of this process reduces the cost of energy toa  great extent and saves the conventional energy as well.

Heat pumps by air power

The air based heat pump uses the system of renewable energy. This heat pump takes the outside air that is efficient to heat the water. However, the work process of the heat pump is quite similar to the work process of the fridge. The fridge cools down the inside air and the heat pump heats up the inside air. This is the only difference. Heat pumps can also be used for keeping the home warm throughout the day (Qu et al., 2020). These pumps can work in all types of temperature and can also extract the heat from the air in minus 15 degree celsius. Moreover, as the heat pumps are environment friendly, they never generate harmful greenhouse gases like the CFC or the chlorofluorocarbon. The governments of the different nations can also grant the subsidy for implementing the heat pumps powered by natural air.

The energy of the wind

The wind turbine is another source of renewable energy that generates the electric energy for not only the big firms but also it has some contribution in the household works. However, the wind turbines that are used by the households, especially the smart homes, are smaller than the usual ones. The blades of the turbines are moved by the air and then the energy is generated. These can be used in the smart households as the free standing poles as well (Naderi et al., 2020). Around 340 euro can be saved if the smart homeowners opt for the wind-based turbines instead of the conventional energy. On the other hand, the electricity bill also becomes very low due to the use of the wind-based turbines as a source of the renewable energy.

2.3 Theoretical Underpinning

In this section of the literature review, IAT sensor model will be described to analyse the energy efficiency and management in a smart home. The full form of IAT sensor is INTELLIGENCE AWARENESS TARGET SENSOR. Sensor IAT is a theory or model that collects simple data based on the sensory part of the devices. A number of sensors is required that can recognise the indoor situation of a smart home. This sensor presents a numerical value based on the situation of the environment also (Ngo et al., 2021). Here, figure 1 depicts a smart home with stationary boards of sensors installed everywhere. Sensors are attached to the board to determine the present position of the smart home. Data is collected in this process through three sensors, namely the rotary, sound and motion (GROSU et al., 2022). These sensors gather data about the indoor situations of the home.

Figure 1: Sensor board of smart home

(Source: Ngo et al., 2021)

On the other hand, figure 2 describes the activities of the owners of the smart home into 4 different situations. In the 1st situation the owner is doing anything indoor (Ngo et al., 2021). The second situation shows that the user is resting in their house. The third situation shows that the user is sleeping. The fourth and the last situation show that the user is not present indoors.

Figure 2: 4 situations of indoors according to the data of sensors

(Source: Martini et al., 2021)

The location and the movements of the owners of the smart home can be well understood in this graph. The checking by the sensor shown in figure 2, is nothing but a simple action. This action shows whether something has been detected with the help of the sensors. Huge amount of data transmission is not required for the sensors to determine the situations (Martini et al., 2021).Thus this IAT sensor can easily recognise the condition and with the help of the network conveys the data to the server. However, if the data stops to transfer the sensors can understand automatically that there is no presence of the owners in the house and naturally the consumption of energy is reduced. 

2.4 Literature Gap

The main objective of the literature gap section of the literature review chapter lies in the fact that this section describes minutely the gaps in the literature section of the dissertation made by previous researchers on the similar topic. However, in the literature review chapter of the other researchers it has been found that sometimes they have not focused much on the theoretical underpinning section. Instead of analysing the particular topic with a specific model or theory, they have just listed the name of the theories that can be used as the theories of energy management systems. Another literature gap is that there are some challenges in controlling energy consumption. However, the authentic data was not available regarding this. Therefore, it has also created a literature gap.

2.5 Summary

The entire literature review section of this dissertation has explained the significance of controlling energy consumption. This part has mainly focused on the cost effectiveness and sustainability of the importance. The outcome generated from the chapter has been shown with the IAT sensor model in the theoretical underpinning section.

Chapter 3: Methodology

The methodology section is used by the researcher for highlighting and evaluating all the methods and processes including the tools that have been used in this study. In the research structure, the researcher has described the selected philosophy, approach as well as design for highlighting the plan that has been used for executing and completing the study by collecting the data. On the other hand, the data analysis will evaluate the types of method or tools used in order to collect and analyse the information used in the study to make it more authentic and appropriate.

Research structure

Research philosophy

Research philosophy is an important method that has been selected and news by the researcher in order to collect data. It helps in upgrading knowledge by providing detailed information. The philosophy is also for showing opinion as well as ideology of the researcher regarding the strategies that can be used for completing a research work focusing on the main subject (Mohajan, 2018). The research philosophy is considered a phenomenon that helps the researcher in analysing, extracting and using the information of the research topic. Therefore, the research philosophy is categorised into three parts positivism philosophy, realism philosophy and interpretivism philosophy.

All the philosophies have different purposes, which can be utilised by the researcher for variations and completing detailed discussion about the research topic. The positivism philosophy helps the researcher to use the collected data in order to get results based on the objectives. It also helps in detecting numbers throughout the function of the variables present in the topic in an analytical way (Mohajan, 2018). By using the method of philosophy the researcher mainly recognises the way of working individually and independently using personal ideas and thoughts. Positivism can be used for developing the trust and the belief of the readers regarding the data. Whereas, in interpretivism the relationship can use theoretical or an epistemological analysis process that are related to obtain knowledge regarding the dependent variable of the research topics. In the realism philosophy, the researcher mainly focuses and collects information from real events related to the topic, maintaining accurate data.

In order to complete this particular research work the researcher has used positivism philosophy. The positivism Philosophy helps the researcher to develop a trust regarding the reliability and the collection of authentic information by experience. It helps in using factual research data that can be used to get a better outcome. Along with this, it helps to collect truthful data that helps the researcher to deliver detailed information about the research topic in an analytical way. It also helps the researcher to develop proper hypotheses and use appropriate models for free work for making the study quantified in a scientific way.

Research Approach

After using research philosophy, the researcher will use the research approach. It is another important method selected by the researcher for recognising the plans of executing and applying the tools in a complete manner (Pandey and Pandey, 2021). It also involves different ways of interpretation in the analysis after collecting the data. The research approach also helps the researcher to select suitable equipment for focusing and highlighting the research problems.

Therefore, the research approach has different steps that are mainly used for interpreting the data and continuing the analysis including the method of Data Collection. Based on the analysis the important factors can be used to objectively find the characteristics of the problems which will be involved with appropriate reason (Pandey and Pandey, 2021). In order to formulate the factors research approach has been used for completing the overall study in a forwarded manner. Along with this, the research approach is classified into deductive approach and inductive approach. The researcher uses an inductive approach for developing and using appropriate theories and models. However, this approach is mainly used for detailed analysis of the secondary information or concept including proper theories and models.

On the other hand, the deductive approach is also used by the researcher in many research studies. It is used for dealing with the significant theories for making an effective research work (Newman and Gough, 2020). Moreover, these approaches are effective for the researcher for applying it in the study for making it more logical as well as theoretical.

In order to complete the research work the researcher has used a deductive approach for collecting reasonable facts. It helps in validating the accurate and proper explanation regarding the data for developing an agenda for changing the reforms. It also includes a collection of different participants you order to test and verify the applied models and theories in detail explanation for recognising the notion of the study. The use of deductive approach also helps integrate the data based on various stages. It helps to test the Framework or hypothesis before using it in the study and codulate with the factors. This particular concept helps in providing a difference between some original factors and variables for the deduction of the theory. Thus, it helps in developing logical explanations with proper meaning and facts.

Research Design

Apart from research approach and philosophy, the researcher has also used Research Design for developing an appropriate structure of the research work. This segment is useful for the researcher and the study in case of selecting and using proper design for completing the work (Newman and Gough, 2020). The Research Design is a significant determinant that helps the researcher to connect the particular study with other factors. Therefore, this is the reason an appropriate Research Design has been selected by the researcher for collecting data. On the other hand it helps in collecting unique data that are used for making the study different as well as authentic with the proper design and structure (Zangirolami-Raimundo et al., 2018). The Research Design is divided into explanatory design, exploratory design and descriptive design.

For completing the research, the researcher has used descriptive Research Design in order to develop a proper structure and design of the overall study. Along with this, the descriptive design is also used by the researcher for describing the collected information in a detailed way following the approaches and the philosophy in a comfortable manner. The descriptive design is also related to the process of Data Collection, which is also useful for the researcher to complete the study using remaining factors. Therefore, the researcher can easily use the structure Research Design while conducting the primary data collection method or secondary data collection method during qualitative data analysis process or thematic analysis process.

Data analysis

Data Collection and analysis

In the case of data analysis and collection methods, the researcher used different processes for collecting information based on various derivatives. This process also included collecting data for analysing the research hypothesis and research problem by evaluating the results (Zangirolami-Raimundo et al., 2018). Therefore, the method of Data Collection is divided into primary and secondary data collection methods. In this process of collecting data the researcher mainly used a survey process, interview process or thematic method for analysing data. The primary method is mainly used for conducting surveys and the interview process whereas the secondary method is used for thematic method. The Qualitative and quantitative method of collecting data is used while conducting the primary data collection method. In the case of a secondary data collection method, different secondary sources are used for collecting information based on the research topic.

For completing the research work, the researcher has used a secondary data collection method. In order to collect the secondary information the researcher used magazines, journals, articles as well as websites related to the research topic. This information may or may not be published previously. Therefore, the use of a secondary data collection method helped the researcher to maintain the quality and originality of the data, which helped to make the study more theoretical as per the research topic in front of the readers.

On the other hand, the data analysis process is also followed by the researcher while collecting information. In order to analyse and interpret the collected data the researcher prefers to use the method of data analysis. The data analysis is classified into quantitative analysis, thematic analysis as well as qualitative analysis (Mohajan, 2018). For this particular study, the secondary thematic analysis has been selected and used by the researcher. It helps to analyse the valuable factors of the research topic using secondary data. However, different themes have been developed based on research hypotheses for critical analysis.

Sampling and population

In the case of sampling size, no proper sample has been selected for this research work. This is because the researcher has decided to use a secondary data collection method. For conducting the secondary data collection method, the researcher has use thematic analysis where no samples are required. Along with this, the researcher has developed some appropriate themes related to the research topic about energy consumption, which will be discussed in the chapter of results for mitigating the recognised literature gap (Mohajan, 2018). Therefore, suitable articles and journals have also been selected for collecting information. Around 10 journal articles have been selected based on the research topic among which five articles and journals were included due appropriate data and 5 were excluded for lack of data and false information.

Chapter 4: Results

4.1 Energy efficient smart homes

4.1.1. Solar Powered Blinds in tiny homes

Tiny homes are gaining popularity all over the world in recent times. These houses are high on the energy efficiency level. Most of these houses are custom built for the customers, so that they are suited to their preference. These houses are known to have high-energy efficient structures, as most of these houses are powered by solar structures, which allow the owners of the house to become economical about the maintenance of the homes as well. The urge amongst the current generation to move into tiny homes is not just due to the easy management of the structure, but also because the structures are highly climate friendly.

The tiny homes that are prevalent in the northern American areas are known to be less expensive on use of energy, amongst other features. These homes are generally built on wheels that allow the owners to travel with the structure with their will. One such example of tiny homes can be the Matchbox, which was constructed by the U.S Department of Housing and Urban Development. The designer was Jay Austin, who during the construction kept the concentration on the erection of energy efficient appliances in the tiny home (Kathleen, 2018). The construction has the presence of a blackout shade that is powered by solar energy. The panel results in reduction of heat loss and heat gain is improved massively. The inclusion of the solar powered blackout shade was an applaudable step by the designer of the tiny home.

These shades are useful in efficiently using the energy of the sun, which is abundantly available. Blackout shades are known to be effective in providing insulation. It traps the inner heat of the home and reduces extra energy usage on home heating (nvintegration.co.uk, 2020). It converts the energy and helps to reduce the electricity bill that an individual would be required to pay. These unique shades help to make use of the renewable resources that are available in our environment. Thus, these houses can be considered as a step towards making the larger houses more energy efficient, if the construction becomes successful. These blinds are generally controlled with the use of batteries operated with solar powers as well. Thus, it makes the requirement for individuals to walk up to the blinds and adjust them unnecessary; the blinds can be activated with the help of the button when requirement arises.

Installation of such features in homes makes the environment sustainable not just by reducing energy usage but also making the controlling system intelligent. It can be also operated with the help of applications on a smartphone, thus enabling remote control of the system as well (Vourvoulias, 2022). Thus, these systems are not just famous in tiny homes, but can also be installed in any smart home to make the system of the homes more attractive and energy efficient.

4.1.2. Smart energy management system

A smart energy management system is useful in intelligently managing the energy usage of a house. This system helps in the optimisation of the energy that is being consumed in the houses and it in turn reduces the consumption of energy of the homes.  These homes make use of solar photovoltaic systems to generate solar powers A solar Photovoltaic System will be able to provide energy to homes. It also makes use of renewable resources of energy, making the homes sustainable. The photovoltaic cells that are present in the solar panels are used to convert the energy of the sun for electricity. These cells can be used to charge batteries with the use of Direct Current (eia.gov, 2022). Erecting these devices with the direct access of the sun will allow the system to generate a large amount of electricity for smart homes. The appliances and electrical appliances will be operated with the use of renewable resources that are abundantly available.

The objective of an Energy management system is to upgrade the photovoltaic system installed in smart homes. The intelligent solution to renewable energy makes it a convincing option for individuals to install in smart homes. The energy flow is controlled with the help of applications that can be accessed from smart phones. It will also allow the evaluation of the energy that is being consumed over a period. The smart homes will be able to analyse if the systems they are using are correctly providing value or they are required to bring in developments for the project. 

An energy management system will also be able to manage the energy load. It allows the smart homes to start the use of various machines, which require higher energy, when more sunlight is available. This enables the efficient utilisation of devices when enough energy resources are available. It will reduce the burden on the system when required solar light is not available. It can be achieved through radio-controlled sockets. Radio controlled sockets will be helpful in measuring the consumption requirement of certain devices and according to the energy resource available, it will direct the energy to those systems or devices that require larger units of energy to operate. This process will reduce the burden that heavy machines will cause during times when required solar energy is not available.

The only negative side that needs to be mentioned while using solar energy is during the period when sun is not available. Unless enough energy is stored by the systems when ample solar power is present, during days when the clouds are cloudy or raining, many heavy load devices will not be functioning properly. It will delay the activities within a household and can cause problems to the individuals. The solar panels need to be developed in ways so that it is not only diverting the energy to load requiring devices when ample energy is available, but also works towards energy storage. 

4.1.3 Light Automation System

Another unique feature that is present or expected to be present in Smart homes are automation systems. The light automation systems were invented with the idea of remote monitoring of the lighting systems not only within a house, but also the lighting systems that are attached outside a building. This is specifically applicable in the case of Light automation System. These systems can be considered as a highly comforting feature as the individuals present in the homes are not required to worry about the electrical appliance remaining on when not required (Budianto et al., 2018). The automatic system is made with the objective of turning off the lights after a specific period as allocated. It also comes into action when the sensors are able to detect that there is no requirement of lighting in a room due to absence of any individual or activity.

The biggest advantage with these systems is that the wastage of electric energy or solar powered electricity is prevented from being wasted. The lights are turned off even if an individual forgets to turn off the switch due to the pre-set timer regarding the time of remaining active. Light automation systems can also be used to reduce the lighting system in a room according to the requirements. During times when brighter lighting is not required, the time can be set on the automation system to reduce the lighting according to the lighting available in the rooms. The systems generally come attached with sensors, which are able to identify the lighting that is available in a room. It will then adjust the light according to the brightest that is required, even after the light or sunlight during daytime that can be detected.

The systems can be easily controlled with the smart phones or desktop devices, thus it is easily controllable, making it user friendly. There are options of controlling a whole group of lights present in the homes rather than just single switches. When the requirement comes to turn off multiple switches in a home, it can be achieved with just one click. Thus, this system can be considered as a key essential in the case of saving energy consumption or preventing wastage. The lighting is balanced and used only when required, making it a favourite application to be used in smart homes in recent times. 

Negative aspect of an automated light system lies in the fact that the system is connected by wireless systems. These features can prove to be unreliable at times. A light automation system needs to be completely efficient in order to be effective for energy consumption. The systems are susceptible to interference and require a high level of maintenance in order to be effective. The installation needs to be done by experts. Unless that is done, the system will not operate properly and can end up providing negative results rather than effective reduction of energy consumption, the system could end up malfunctioning, thus switching the lights on and off as per timer will not be possible.

4.1.4 Smart ventilation

The objective of a smart ventilation system is to identify the increased concentration of Carbon Dioxide in a room and increase the flow of fresh air in the room as per the requirement. The increased humidity can be used to trigger the ventilation system. The inflow of the outside air will help the room temperature to be controlled. The smart adjustment of the ventilation system aims at providing the required benefits and minimises the consumption of energy. Ventilation systems adjust the room ventilation based on the occupancy of the room (Saleem, 2020). This means that the system is active and working at an increased pace when there are more individuals occupying the rooms and carbon dioxide level is increased. During the lower occupancy level, the ventilation system will also cease their activity. Thus, it helps that the system is operating only during its high requirement and does not waste the energy by remaining active when it is not required.

The energy requirements of the smart homes are reduced as the ventilation system operates as per the requirements of the area. The Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is stopped from operating and made active again in respect of the occupancy and electrical appliances requirements. The system works with the help of sensors that are useful in detecting changes in the environment on a real-time basis. It can also be controlled with the help of a remote system. The smart ventilation system is effective in analysing the energy utilisation of smart homes. It provides an idea about the consumption with the help of statistics.

The smart ventilation systems can be quite costly for installation, thus it can be the reason for many not preferring the installation of this system. The system requires a thermostat to be used in order to be operating efficiently. The HVAC system can get affected due to the sudden changes in the airflow in an ohm. Hence, this system also requires ample maintenance to provide proper service of a smart home.

4.1.5 Monitoring energy consumption

A smart home is because the energy utilisation is reduced and more efficient and renewable resources of energy are being used. In order to achieve that, the energy consumption needs to be monitored. This can be achieved with the installation of an energy monitoring system with the smart homes. It will help the homes to analyse the amount of energy they have been previously using before and after the smart appliance was installed (Womeldorf, 2021). This system will be connected with the smart appliances that are installed in the house, and it will help to obtain the consumption information and provide analyses of the consumption. The monitoring will also help to understand if any of the devices is malfunctioning and requires be changing or updating.

Energy monitoring will provide accurate information about the consumption on a real time basis and identify the cause of excess consumption if any. The system is effective in energy saving as it controls energy usage by passive heating or cooling of devices, and shutting down the stems that are not in current usage. This way, unnecessary electricity or other forms of energy will not be used up. Even with individuals being absent from their home, the smart system is capable of controlling the devices in order to manage the energy usage.

Chapter 5: Discussion

The use of smart devices is highly efficient in making a modern home smart, in terms of energy consumption. There are many features, which make the lives of individuals more comfortable. It is not that it makes the lives of people easy, but also energy consumption is controlled largely. Energy consumption and electricity bills are a very big concern for people today. The increase of consumption units is making it difficult to install heavy machines in homes. These machines can make living easy, but are cost effective. The installation of such smart appliances comes to use in such situations. Do they not only make use of renewable resources, but also reduce consumption levels of electricity.

The smart devices generally operate with AI technology incorporated in them this helps them to become Smart in actual terms and operate according to the requirements. Most smart devices have sensors installed in them, which provide them with the information based on which they will operate. The use of AI in smart devices can be seen from the light automation systems. This device operates with the help of sensors. The sensors are able to detect the presence of humans inside a room and based on which, they will control the light system. The sensors are also able to detect the intensity of light in a room and adjust the lighting accordingly. This is the advantage of AI installation in appliances. The sensors are attached to the controller, which allows the light system to operate. The energy that is used, whether solar power or regular electricity, is correctly utilised and prevented from being wasted. This results in sustainable usage of energy resources.

Renewable resources are highly preferred by the current generation in order to maintain a sustainable environment of living.

The use of solar powered blackouts in tiny homes is a step towards this. Not just tiny homes, but various homes and buildings are making use of the solar blinds in order to save energy and make use of solar power to operate the blinds. Blackout blinds are helpful in reducing the loss of heat that is generated in a room and it increases the heat gain as well. Thus, it is a method of preventing the energy being wasted. It will require people turning on heating appliances less times due to trapping the heat within the rooms. These panels are mostly operated with the help of solar panels. Thus, renewable resources are being utilised. The objective of a smart home can be achieved through installation of these blinds as it uses renewable resources of energy and prevents wastage of energy as well.

A smart energy management system also works on using the solar energy panel for efficient energy management within a smart household. The management system works on efficiently upgrading the photovoltaic systems that are installed in smart homes. The energy obtained through the systems is effectively distributed through the management system. The heavier load machines receive more energy in order to operate than the other devices. This results in optimum consumption of the solar energy that is being retrieved.

Chapter 6: Conclusion

6.1 Conclusion

The conclusion is the last section where the researcher concludes the overall study mentioning the chapters in a detailed way. This chapter highlights all the facts and elements that have been used throughout the study. In the first chapter, the researcher introduced the topic with the readers by evaluating a background by developing the purpose and objective of the study. It also involved the problem statement by highlighting the issues and the reasons including the rationale of the study. The overall structure of the study has also been mentioned in a detailed way.

In the second chapter, the analysis is based on different themes developed using the main concept and factors from the research topic and the objective. These are mainly analysed using different websites, articles and journals of various scholars by collecting secondary data. In the portion of theory implementation, the researcher has used the IAT sensor model for analysing it. The literature gap of the study has also been addressed by the researcher for lack of information and data relevant to the study, which was important. The third section is methodology whether researchers describe all the methods, tools and processes used for collecting data and completing the research. However, the researcher uses positivism philosophy, deductive approach and descriptive design for collecting data including the secondary data collection method.

Therefore, the secondary thematic analysis has been used.  Suitable themes have been developed based on the objectives that are related to the way of reducing the uses of energy in the result chapter. The chapter of discussion is also based on the information and the interpretation of the result in a proper way. However, the recommendation, linking with objectives, limitations and future scope has been discussed in this chapter in a detailed way.

6.2 Linking with Objectives

6.2.1 To highlight the importance of energy consumption

This objective has been linked to the literature section in order to complete the review with proper analysis and information.

6.2.2 To analyse the ways of controlling and reducing energy consumption

The objective related to the processes of controlling and decreasing energy consumption has also been linked and analysed

6.2.3 To evaluate the advantages of renewable resources for energy consumption

This objective has been linked to the literature section in order to complete the review with proper analysis and information

6.2.4 To address the challenges related to energy consumption

This objective has not been linked in the study. However, it has created a gap, which can need to be mitigated by the future researchers

6.3 Recommendation

Installation of smart bulbs

Once a person enters the house, the smart bulbs automatically start to be lit. On the other hand, if the detector in the smart bulb cannot recognise the presence of anyone in the house, it automatically conveys the message to the owner to turn off the switch. Naturally, this process can easily contribute to the saving and the reduction of the energy in the households.

Shutting down the computers at night

Many people literally forget to shut down the computer or the laptop at night. This increases a huge level of energy consumption. Therefore, after the work, if the people shut down their computers and the laptops, they will be able to save a huge amount of money.

Adjusting day to day Behaviors

In order to decrease the air consumption at home and save energy, individuals are not required to go out and purchase energy efficient products. Energy conservation can become an easier way of saving energy, which can be used by people through energy intensive appliances.

Installing energy efficient windows

Windows are mainly considered as the main source of energy waste. This can add on 10 to 25% of heating bills. For the prevention of heat, loss through Windows an individual can change single pane windows with double pane products. Windows shutters, shades, awnings and screens can provide extra layers of insulation between the outside and home temperature that leads to more energy conservation.

Weathering home

Sealing the air leakage in the house is a great process of decreasing cooling and heating expenses. The most common way of managing air leakage into the home is Windows, vents and doors. For preventing this type of leakage, people must ensure that there are no cracks between the vents and walls, or in windows. Thus, it will be useful for saving electricity if any cooling or heating is turned on inside the room, so there will be no leakage.

6.4 Limitation

The main limitation of this research is that there was the deficiency in time and in arranging the huge amount of money for conducting the research with authentic sources. Another limitation of this research is that there is a lack of statistics related to the topic. Therefore, the researcher here could not cover the analysis with relevant statistics.

6.5 Future Scope

Using the renewable energy can be seen as the future scope to control or reduce the usage of the conventional energy in the smart homes. The scope for the improvement related to the energy generated from the sources of renewable energy is vast in almost all the countries. However, as the sources of the conventional energy are decreasing day by day, controlling the use of the conventional energy should be taken as the first priority, especially in the smart homes. It can also increase the level of sustainability for the environment.

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