PHIL 1000 Final

PHIL 1000 Final                                                                      Name:

  1. Identifying Key Terms (20 points): Each of the following describes a key philosophical term, position, or claim we have discussed in class. Your job is to provide the name or label associated with that term, position, or claim (class notes may be helpful here). Some examples:
  • We cannot know anything.

— Answer: skepticism

  • A belief is knowledge only if it is justified by an unjustifiable, foundational belief.

— Answer: foundationalism

  • Being all-powerful.

— Answer: omnipotent

  • All human actions are fully causally determined.
    • The brain is just a digital computer, and the mind is just a sophisticated computer program.
    • Actions are moral if they benefit my self-interest, and are immoral otherwise.
    • Two things are identical just in case they have all and only the same properties.
    • Some human actions are free.
    • The future will resemble the past and present.
    • Mind and body are different substances, having different properties.
    • The laws of nature, together with what has happened in the past, determine a unique possible future.
    • All that exists is material or physical in nature.
    • An action is moral if it conforms to a specific set of morals norms, which must be obeyed, and is immoral otherwise.
    • If we can prevent something bad from happening without having to sacrifice anything of comparable moral value, then we ought to do so.
    • A person is morally responsible for what they have done only if they could have done otherwise.
    • An action is moral if it maximizes well-being and minimizes suffering, and is immoral otherwise.
    • Some human actions are free, but all human actions are causally determined.
    • What determines the referent of an expression.
    • All that exists is mental in nature.
    • Moral claims are true only relative to particular individuals or societies.
    • Being about, representing, or standing for something in the world.
    • Everything is identical with itself.
    • An action is moral if God commands it, and is immoral if God forbids it.
  1. Validity (20 points): Each of the following is a deductive argument which, as stated, is invalid. Your job is to make it valid, by a) putting it into premise-conclusion form, and b) supplying any implicit or missing premises and conclusions. An example:

i) A wholly perfect being exists in our minds, because we can imagine that a wholly perfect being exists.

(P1) We can imagine that a wholly perfect being exists. (P2) Anything we can imagine exists in our minds.

(C1) So, a wholly perfect being exists in our minds.

  • For every day throughout recorded history, apples have fallen from trees. Therefore, in the future, apples will continue to fall from trees.
  • Since saving an innocent child from drowning in a shallow pond would only require getting your shoes muddy, you have a moral obligation to save the child.
  • Because there is significant moral disagreement between people and cultures, and since there is ample evidence available regarding moral issues, morality is not objective.
  • Computers cannot understand Chinese, and understanding Chinese is a mental state. Therefore, computers could not be minds.
  • Since the mind is not material or physical in nature, it does not exist.
  • It is in my self-interest to steal money, assuming I won’t be caught. Hence, it would be immoral for me not to steal money, assuming I won’t be caught.
  • If God commanded an action without having a reason for commanding that action, then God would act irrationally. Therefore, if God commands an action, then God must have a reason for commanding that action.
  • When the doctor bumped Mary’s knee with a hammer, she kicked him. But since she couldn’t have done otherwise, she is not morally responsible for kicking the doctor.
  • A brain can be divided and remain a brain, but a mind cannot be divided and remain a mind. Therefore, the mind is not identical to the brain.
  • The suffering inflicted on animals due to factory farming does not outweigh the enjoyment we receive from eating them. Consequently, eating animals is wrong.
  1. Evaluating Arguments (15 points): Each of the following is an argument similar to one we have discussed in class. Your job is to criticize the argument by targeting a premise or inference and objecting to it. That is, for each argument, you have one of two options: a) reject one of the premises, or else b) reject one of the inferences from the premises to a conclusion. For each argument, indicate which of these two options you want to take, and briefly explain why the premise or inference chosen is problematic. Here are two examples:
  1. (P1) Five is an even number.

(P2) All even numbers are divisible by two.

  • So, five is divisible by two.
  • The problem with this argument is (P1), which is false, since five is an odd number.
  1. (P1) The Bible says that God exists.
    1. So, God exists.
  • The problem with this argument is that (C) does not follow from (P1). It only follows if we also assume that everything the Bible says is true, which is probably false.
  • (P1) Morality is a human convention: it is something we make up, and it would not have existed without us.

(P2) No claims established on the basis of human convention are objective.

(C) Therefore, no moral claims are objective.

(31) (P1) Non-human animals, such as monkeys and dogs, are not self-conscious and do not possess the same degree of intelligence as humans.

(P2) We only have moral obligations towards things which are self-conscious and possess a high degree of intelligence.

(C) Therefore, we do not have moral obligations towards non-human animals.

  • (P1) I am certain that my mind exists. (P2) I am not certain that my body exists.

(P3) Things having different properties are distinct.

(C) Therefore, my mind and my body are distinct.

  • (P1) In the past, the future has always resembled the past and present.

(C) So, from now on, the future will always resemble the past and present.

  • (P1) If an action is fully causally determined, then an agent performing that action couldn’t have done otherwise.

(P2) Agents cannot be held morally responsible for actions for what is unavoidable.

(C) So, if an action is fully causally determined, then agents cannot be held morally responsible for that action.

  1. Short Answer (25 points): Answer each of the following. You should be able to answer each question within 300 words maximum.

(35) What is the mind-body problem, and how does Descartes’ argument for mind-body dualism lead to that problem? First, describe the mind-body problem. Secondly, briefly sketch Descartes’ argument for mind-body dualism, and say how the latter leads to the former. Is Descartes’ argument convincing? Why or why not?

(38) What is moral progress and why is it problematic for cultural relativism? First, explain the notion of moral progress, and provide some examples motivating its existence. Second, define cultural relativism, and briefly explain why, if true, it would not allow for the possibility of moral progress. How might a defender of cultural relativism reasonably respond to this argument?

(37) How does Singer’s comparable moral values principle purport to show that we have a moral obligation to donate all of our excess wealth to relief charities? First, formulate the comparable moral values principle, and provide some examples demonstrating when it would apply and when it would not. Secondly, explain how the comparable moral values principle leads to the conclusion that we ought to donate all excess wealth to relief organizations. Finally, explain why Singer’s argument implies that donating to relief organizations is not supererogatory. Is this plausible? Why or why not?

(39) What is Hume’s Problem of Induction, and how does it threaten to render scientific knowledge impossible? First, briefly sketch Hume’s Problem of Induction. Secondly, briefly explain why this argument threatens to make scientific knowledge impossible. Why might the Problem of Induction fail to render all scientific reasoning unjustifiable?

(36) How does Searle’s Chinese Room thought experiment purport to show that strong artificial intelligence is incorrect? First, define strong artificial intelligence as a view. Second, briefly describe the Chinese Room thought experiment. Third, explain why this is problematic for strong artificial intelligence. How might a defender of strong artificial intelligence reasonably respond to this argument?

  • Short Essay (20 points): Your job here is to take your 4-Sentence Essay assignment and to convert it into a short essay. The essay should consist of three parts: an Introduction, a Body, and a Conclusion. The Introduction should consist of the first two sentences of your 4-Sentence Essay assignment. Your Conclusion should fit the following format, consistent with the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th sentences of the 4-Sentence Essay:

I have argued that          because          . Although one might respond by arguing that                 , I have replied that                                    .

MY FOUR SENTENCE PAPER : The Philosopher Singer argues that if we can prevent something bad from happening without having to sacrifice anything of comparable moral value, then we ought to do so because as long as we can do it without sacrificing something that is important from a moral standpoint because it only requires us to prevent something bad and not to promote good. However, I object that preventing something bad from happening should be a person’s choice because if a person does something out of choice they don’t do it just for the sake of doing it, and with choice, you put more effort to prevent something bad happening. One might respond to my objection by arguing that choice will only make a person think twice before preventing bad from happening and a very less amount of people would choose to help. I reply that everything comes down to choice and when you do something out of choice you are not scared of sacrificing anything or do it anything just for the sake of doing it

The Body of the essay should expand on all four sentences. Specifically, the second paragraph should expand on the first sentence of the 4-Sentence Essay assignment. Put the argument you are discussing into premise-conclusion form, and motivate the premises by briefly explaining why they are plausible. The third paragraph should expand on the second sentence of your

4-Sentence Essay. Specifically, briefly explain which premise or inference in the argument you are rejecting, and give your reasons for rejecting it. The fourth paragraph should expand on the third and fourth sentences of the 4-Sentence essay. Begin by stating the reply to your objection contained in the third sentence, and follow this with your reply contained in the fourth sentence, along with your reasons for accepting that reply. Your essay should not exceed 500 words.

Please include a word count at the end of your essay (not included in the word count itself).

  • Bonus: You do not have to do this if you don’t want to. It will count as extra credit counting towards both your midterm and final exams, and you will not be penalized if you do not do it. But the assignment is simple: formulate your own argument on a controversial ethical issue, e.g. donating to charity, eating meat, euthenasia, capital punishment, gay marriage, or any ethical topic you feel particularly strongly about. Your conclusion should be moral in character, something of the form: Therefore, X is morally acceptable/morally unacceptable. Also, the argument should be in premise-conclusion form, and it should be sound. You should also try to

simplify it as much as possible: arguments with less claims are a lot easier to follow, and more effective, than those with many many claims. Finally, after providing your argument, you should give reasons for accepting the premises. Ultimately, I will award points based on whether the argument is sound, in addition to its ingenuity and persuasiveness.

Order Now

Get expert help for PHIL 1000 Final and many more. 24X7 help, plag free solution. Order online now!

Universal Assignment (September 25, 2022) PHIL 1000 Final. Retrieved from
"PHIL 1000 Final." Universal Assignment - September 25, 2022,
Universal Assignment September 1, 2022 PHIL 1000 Final., viewed September 25, 2022,<>
Universal Assignment - PHIL 1000 Final. [Internet]. [Accessed September 25, 2022]. Available from:
"PHIL 1000 Final." Universal Assignment - Accessed September 25, 2022.
"PHIL 1000 Final." Universal Assignment [Online]. Available: [Accessed: September 25, 2022]

Please note along with our service, we will provide you with the following deliverables:

Please do not hesitate to put forward any queries regarding the service provision.

We look forward to having you on board with us.

Get 45%* OFF on Assignment Help

Popular Assignments

Find the Greatest Ancient History Assignment Help Instantly

Ancient History Assignment Help Benefits Student Performance! Ancient History assignment help uplifts student understanding and interest in the area. Ancient history can often become confusing for students because it involves understanding events that are hardly relatable to us in the present generation! Universal Assignment is the perfect platform for the

Read More »

Australia’s Best Aboriginal Studies Assignment Help Online

Upgrade your knowledge with the best Experts:  Quick Aboriginal Studies Assignment Help The world’s most rich research on Aboriginal studies takes place at the top educational institutions in Australia. This field involves rich socio-historical research on the Aboriginal indigenous community of Australia. Aboriginal Studies assignment help online can help students

Read More »

Physical Education Assignment Help: Expert Guidance to Boost your Career

Order Physical Education Assignment Help Instantly! Are you a Physical Education student, struggling to submit assignments on time? Universal Assignment Help Service is the perfect place for all your solutions. With expert guidance available from the best professionals, all your assignments will be top-quality. Physical Education involves a strict and

Read More »

Assignment Help in South Africa

5 Ways to Make Your Assignments Error-Free Assignments are a crucial part of every student’s life as they help them to enhance knowledge about the subjects and also improve academic grades, writing skills, time management skills, research skills, etc. Usually, due to internships, part-time jobs, and other co-curricular activities, students

Read More »

Instant Engineering Assignment Help in Ukraine

Engineering is a vast field of study that consists of several branches. While studying various branches of engineering in the best Ukraine universities, students are required to compose several types of assignments to improve their academic scores. There are many different reasons due to why students seek engineering assignment help

Read More »

[SOLVED] AHS205: The Australian Healthcare System within a Global Context

AHS205: The Australian Healthcare System within a Global Context Part A 1. Healthcare professionals include registered nurses, physicians, dentists, physician assistants, and veterinarians. Registered nurse: The key function which the nurses play in treating the patient with depression include monitoring the clinical progress, improving the compliances of treatment, assessment for

Read More »

[SOLVED] Assignment: Pressure ulcer in ICU in UK

1- Critique different types of evidence ( the area I’ve chosen is pressure ulcer in ICU)2- Analyse what constitutes Best Evidence for practice in the UK3- Critically reflect on the BENEFITS and LIMITATIONS of evidence based practice (EBP) within nursing practice. Using Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT)Student will critique a qualitative

Read More »

[SOLVED] Assignment The lasting negative impact of Colonialism within contemporary Indian Economy and Industry

The lasting negative impact of Colonialism within contemporary Indian Economy and Industry Famine in India and colonialism During the period of colonialism, root causes of famine within India include government policies, population imbalance, crop failure, inflation and war. Increased mortality, epidemic, starvation and regional malnutrition follow and accompany famine within

Read More »

[SOLVED] OSQs: The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective

The Psychology of Competition: A Social Comparison Perspective OSQs Outlines Competitiveness and Social Comparison – The passage is all about reducing differences in the society and developing factors to do social comparison – Situational and individual factors have been highlighted to increase competitiveness The framework highlighting situational and individual factors

Read More »

 [SOLVED] Letter of advice 5126LAW: ASSESSMENT ITEM 3

Law Letter of Advice 25 January 2022 Ms. Amelia Hart 4 Cornet Street, Yeronga Re: Domestic Violence and parenting matter- Hart & Hart Dear Amelia, We do confirm that we have been asked to provide you with advice regarding the parenting and domestic violence matter during the appointment on 24

Read More »

5126LAW: ASSESSMENT ITEM 3  Letter of Advice Problem

5126LAW: ASSESSMENT ITEM 3  Information about this assignment:  This assessment piece requires you to prepare:  1. An initial letter of advice;  2. A draft Application for a Protection Order (Form DV1); and  3. Draft Written Submissions.  Initial letter of advice  Ensure that the initial letter of advice is addressed to

Read More »


Student Number: (enter on the line below) Student Name: (enter on the line below) HC1021INTERPERSONAL AND E-COMMUniCATION final assessmeNt Trimester 3, 2021 Assessment Weight: 50 total marks Instructions: All questions must be answered by using the answer boxes provided in this paper. Completed answers must be submitted to Blackboard by

Read More »

COMM1001 Communication in Organisations

Assessment 4 – Written report (1200 Words) 50% Due Week 14 – By 5pm Friday Sept 27th Your full recorded interview from Assessment 3, becomes the basis of your report for Assessment 4 Drawing on the content from your interview and the academic literature related to the three communication topics

Read More »

MBA703 – The Economic Environment – Trimester 2 2022 Assessment Task 2

DUE DATE AND TIME:                        Friday, 23 September 2022, by 8:00pm (AEST) PERCENTAGE OF FINAL GRADE:                                                            40% WORD COUNT:                                   2000 words Description This assignment is based on an article published in the AFR titled “Australia must have a new macroeconomic framework”. Please read the article and answer the following questions (using

Read More »

IT510 Systems Analysis and Design Module Preview

This guide contains a preview of the materials for all module courses in this series: IT510M1: Systems Planning, Analysis, and Logic Processes IT510M2: Data Organization Process IT510M3: System Physical Attributes IT510M4: Written Proposals for System Analysis and Design Be sure to follow the detailed directions found within the actual module

Read More »

BULAW5915 Assignment

Information about the Assignment:   Due date   Sunday, 23:59, 18 September 2022 (Week 9) How to submit   The assignment must be submitted in word format through the submission link on Moodle.   Topics covered by Assignment Topic 4   Maximum word limit   2500 words   Total marks

Read More »

Biomedical Physiology and Engineering assignment

Stent grafts for coronary arteries were first used in the mid 1980’s.  I want you to review the developments in stent graft technology since that time and discuss the natural response of the body to angioplasty and stent placement and how biomedical engineers have responded to the adverse events encountered

Read More »

NRSG374 Assessment Task 1, 2022

ASSESSMENT TASK 1 Professional Development Resource: Narrated PowerPoint Due date: Thursday 15th September 2022 at 4pm Weighting: 50% Length and/or format: Narrated PowerPoint equivalent to 1500 Words +/- 10%8-10 Slides Including Title Page and ReferencesDiagrams and images can be used please include references as per APA7No longer than 8 mins

Read More »


WEIGHT:          This assessment is worth 30% of the total marks for this course. WORD LIMIT: Your answer to Question 1 (Hypothetical ILAC Question) must be no longer than 1000 words. Your answer to Question 2 & 3 must be no longer than 1000 words. INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS: Students may refer

Read More »

HRM 4801 Managing and Developing People

The following table provides an example of the overview of the assessment requirements. Assessment 1 : Individual reflexive review The following table provides an overview of the assessment requirements. Assignment brief : Individual reflexive review Module code HRM 4801 Module title Managing and Developing People Submission date, time 01.12.2020 :

Read More »


Course/ Module: BUSINESS ETHICS SEGI Course Code: BUS4023 UCLAN Module Code: (if applicable) Lecturer name: William Tan Coursework Submission Date:                         Individual Assessment 1: Week 7 Individual Assessment 2: Week 9 ASSESSMENT METHODS Number of Assessments Form of Assessment     % weighting Size of Assessment/Duration/ Word count Category of

Read More »

Human Subjects Case Studies

Case Study 1 – Research involving adults with terminal illness Dr. Abbott, an oncologist at a major teaching hospital, has been asked to put forward a number of her patients for participation in a clinical trial of a new cancer treatment. Mr. Day is a terminally ill patient with a

Read More »

BA Stage 3 Level 7 Special Education and Differentiation

Assignment Brief and Marking Scheme Programme: Module: Semester: Date of Title Issue: Assignment Deadline: Assignment Submission Details:   Module Credits: Weighting for this Assignment: BA Stage 3 Level 7 Special Education and Differentiation 1 05/10/20 26/11/20 Submit both the essay and the completed IEP in electronic format (PDF) to Moodle.

Read More »

PART II: Media Analysis and Reflection Submission

Students are also required to submit a Media Analysis and Reflection in relation to the media segment (see below) for the Media Discussion Forum. In approximately 350 to 500 words, please expand the synopsis you have provided as a Leader on the Discussion Forum. In this expanded version, you should

Read More »

Philosophy227 Take Home Essay Questions

Philosophy227 Take Home Essay Questions Carel argues that one can be happy – that one’s life can be meaningful – even if one is terminally ill. What is her argument? Do you agree? Is death harmful? Articulate a reason for thinking that death is harmful. Identity an argument against the

Read More »

General Psychology Assignment

Question Mark Travers in his article posted by Psychology Today dated 8th Sept, 2020 posed a question; “Are dating apps a breeding ground for dark personality?” in which new research suggests that the answer is likely yes (Johannes Kepler University). Dark personality triad comprises personality traits of Narcissism, Machiavellianism and

Read More »

Portfolio Planning Tool

Planning for a Target Position: Use this sheet to identify your Key Skill Areas. Add more Key Skill Areas or additional rows if needed.  Within each key skill area, indicate your skills, knowledge, and abilities along with the work samples/evidence you have to prove it, the skill type, source and

Read More »

Can't Find Your Assignment?

Open chat
Free Assistance
Universal Assignment
Hello 👋
How can we help you?