Practical 1: Cyclodextrin Host-Guest Chemistry


Cyclodextrins (CD) are a class of cyclic oligosacchariders that have a hydrophobic molecule-sized cavity (Del Valle, 2004). The most common CDs are toroidally (‘trash

-can’) shaped polysaccharides composed of 6, 7, or 8 D-glucopyranoside units joined by a 1,4-glycosidic link; and are referred to as α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrin, respectively (Figure 1). The ring size increases from α – 0.49nm, β – 0.62nm and γ – 0.8nm. Smaller and larger ring structures are also known and used.

The shape of the CD is often represented as a funnel with an upper wider rim and lower narrower rim. The upper rim consists of the secondary hydroxyl groups and the lower with primary hydroxyl groups. The larger number of hydrophilic hydroxyl groups at the rim of the funnel and the hydrophobic cavity make CDs a useful host for hydrophobic guest molecules.

CDs can therefore act as hosts to guest molecules that can fit into the cavity and prefer a hydrophobic environment. Febreeze®, a brand of household odor eliminators, is based on the inclusion of odor molecules in a CD cavity. Also, solubility of drugs can be enhanced by inclusion in CDs. CDs have also been used in separation science applications. Capillary electrophoresis, liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography employ the CD inclusion phenomenon to separate structurally similar molecules, even chiral isomers! These applications have spurred the development of many CD derivatives by replacing the hydroxyls on the exterior of the CD with a variety of charged and uncharged groups.

Figure 1: Schematic representations of (a) the general chemical structure and (b) the tridimensional structure of cyclodextrins, and (c) chemical structure and dimensions for α-, β- and γ-cyclodextrin (n = 6, 7 and 8, respectively). Image from (Crini et al, 2018).


This practical examines host-guest interactions between a small molecule (8-anilino-1- naphthalenesulfonate (ANS, Figure 2a) and Methyl-β-Cyclodextrin (ME β-CD) (Figure 2b). ME β-CD is a derivative of β-CD which has been modified to give a more hydrophobic cavity. ANS displays increased fluorescence intensity in a hydrophobic (non-polar) environment compared to in a polar solvent such as water. Therefore, when ANS associates with a β-CD molecule, an enhancement in fluorescence can be seen. This binding interaction between the two molecules will be examined in this lab session using fluorescence spectroscopy. An estimate of the binding constants of the complexes will also be examined.

Figure 2. a) Left – 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1- sulfonic acid (ANS). b) Right Structure of the Methyl-β-cyclodextrins as will be used in this laboratory exercise. For ME b-CD: R= -H or -CH3


  • 2-Butanol is an irritant and may cause drowsiness. Avoid breathing fume.
  • Dispose all samples in designated waste container.

Experimental Method


You will use the Cary Eclipse Fluorescence Spectrophotometer by Agilent Technologies for measurement of fluorescence.

  1. Turn on the Spectrophotometer for at least 5 minutes before use. The power switch is on bottom right corner.
  2. Log in to the associated laptop (username: cbms-teaching; pw: 200300).
  3. Open the Cary Eclipse Scan Application by clicking on the Scan Icon on    the left of the Task Bar (bottom left corner of the screen).

These steps will be done in advance for you by the lab technician.

 PART I: Fluorescence enhancement of ANS by different solvents                                                                                                                                        

Solutions: You will be provided with the following stock solutions and samples.

  • 400µM ANS
    • 1 X Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) pH7
    • Absolute methanol
    • Absolute ethanol
    • 2-butanol


  1. Into clean 2 ml microcentrifuge tubes, mix 100 μl of ANS solution with 1.9 ml of different solvents (PBS, methanol, ethanol and 2-butanol). Label your 4 microcentrifuge tubes properly.
  2. Incubate for 5 mins in ultrasonicator bath. Now your samples are ready for ANS

fluorescence measurement with Cary Eclipse Spectrophotometer.

  • In the Cary Eclipse Scan Application, click on Setup to input your parameters to obtain the fluorescence emission scan measurements as follows:
    • Cary tab:
      • Excitation: 340 nm
      • Start: 400nm
      • Stop: 600nm
      • Excitation slit nm = 5
      • Emission slit nm = 5
      • Scan control: medium
    • Options tab:
      • Y minimum: 0.0
      • Y maximum: 400.0
      • Check the Smoothing box
    • Reports tab:
      • Under Peaks: Tick Maximum Peak and Untick All peaks
      • Change Threshold to 10
    • Leave the rest of the parameters as default.
  • You will be provided with a blank fluorimeter cuvette which contains 2mL of the

blank solvent – water.

  • Place your blank sample cuvette into the fluorimeter i.e. containing 2ml of water into the fluorimeter. This is your blank “Zero”. **Note, if using quartz cuvettes, be careful when handling as they are very expensive and can easily be broken or chipped. Avoid touching the face of the cuvette with your fingers.
  • Carefully remove the water blank cuvette out of the holder and put it back into the correct slot in the cuvette holder rack. Do not
  • In the rack, there are 4 cuvettes. Please select the correct cuvette to use. Decant 2mL

of your ANS in PBS solution into the PBS Sample cuvette. Carefully place it in the fluorimeter. Change the excitation and emission slit values to 10 and 10. Hit Start

– optional name the sample as ‘PBS’ in window after you hit start.

  • The software will record the wavelength for the maximum peak position and the value of the maximum fluorescence intensity. You can find these numbers in the Report on the right of the screen. You will need these values for your report.
  • Take your ANS Sample cuvette out. Empty your ANS sample mixture into the provided Liquid Waste bottle. Place the empty Sample cuvette back into its designated slot in the cuvette holder rack.
  • Using the same settings, repeat Step 7-9 for the three other ANS-solvent solutions you have prepared. Change the excitation and emission slit values to 5 and 5 for all remaining samples. Run the emission scan. Again, the wavelength for the maximum peak position and the value of the maximum fluorescence intensity for the ANS-

solvent solutions will be reported in the software. You will need these values for your report. A printout of fluorescence emission graphs and associated reports should be done once you have finished collecting your data.

 PART II: Binding constant of ANS:ME-β-CD                                                                                                                                        

Solutions: You will be provided with the following stock solutions:

  • 1 X Phosphate Buffer Saline (PBS) pH7
  • 400μM ANS
  • 20mM ME-b-CD in PBS


  1. Add 500 μl of 400μM ANS to 8 x clean 2ml microcentrifuge tubes.
  2. Add X μL of 20mM ME β-CD and Y μL of PBS according to the table below to increase the concentration of ME β-CD from 0 mM to 15 mM. The total volume should always be 2mL. **Have this table checked by a demonstrator BEFORE making your samples for the experiment.
      Sample[ME β- CD]X mL of ME β-CD (20mM)  mL of ANS (400μM)Y mL of PBS  Fluorescence intensity (F)      F-F0
10 mM05001500= F0 
23 mM 500   
35 mM 500   
47 mM 500   
59 mM 500   
611 mM 500   
713 mM 500   
815 mM 500   
  • Incubate each sample for 5 mins in the bath ultrasonicator.
  • In the Cary Eclipse Scan Application, click on Setup to input your parameters for the fluorescence measurement as below:
    • Cary tab:
      • Excitation: 340 nm
      • Start: 400nm
      • Stop: 600nm
      • Excitation slit nm = 2.5
      • Emission slit nm = 5
      • Scan Control: medium
  • Options tab:
    • Y minimum: 0.0
    • Y maximum: 500.0
    • Check the Smoothing box
    • Reports tab:
      • Under Peaks: Tick Maximum Peak and Untick All peaks
      • Change Threshold to 0.2
    • Leave the rest of the parameters as default.
  • Add 2ml of 1 X PBS into the fluorimeter cuvette. Use this as your blank (Zero).
  • Carefully remove/pipette the PBS out of cuvette after collecting the scan
  • Add 2mL of your first sample – Sample 1 – into the cuvette. Hit Start to measure.
  • Write down the maximum fluorescence intensity (F) into the table.
  • Pipette your Sample 1 back into its original tube.
  • Repeat Step 7-9 with remaining Samples 2 to 8. You are going up in concentration of the cyclodextrin so there is no need to wash the cuvette in between each sample. However, be sure to remove as much liquid out of the cuvette as possible before adding your next sample.
  • You can switch between viewing all graphs and individual graph by choosing either

All graph icon   or Focused graph icon  on the software program.

  1. Create a Benesi-Hildebrand Plot by plotting data as described in Part III. Using this graph, estimate the binding constant (Ka). It is important to record the Fluorescence intensity ‘F’ of the peak. Add these values to the table for each sample.

 Part III: Determine the binding constants using fluorescence spectrometry                                                                                                                                        

If the fluorescence of ANS changes upon inclusion in the CD cavity then the degree of the fluorescence change is related to the degree of binding. One can use this information

to then determine the equilibrium constant (Ka) for the complexation process. For a 1:1 ANS:CD complex, the association constant Ka can be defined as:



ANS:CD                                   [Eqn 1]


𝐾   = [𝐴𝑁𝑆:𝐶𝐷]


[Eqn 2]

For a 1:1 complex, the equilibrium concentrations of ANS and CD are determined by by subtracting the concentration that has complexed [ANS:CD] from the initial concentrations ([ANS]0 and [CD]0):

[𝐴𝑁𝑆] = [𝐴𝑁𝑆]0 − [𝐴𝑁𝑆: 𝐶𝐷]                                    [Eqn 3]

[𝐶𝐷] = [𝐶𝐷]0 − [𝐴𝑁𝑆: 𝐶𝐷]                                          [Eqn 4]

However, because the [CD]0 >> [Complex], we can simplify [Eqn 4] to:

[𝐶𝐷] = [𝐶𝐷]0                                                                      [Eqn 5]

Substitution of [Eqn 3] and [Eqn 5] into the equilibrium expression [Eqn 2] yields:


𝐾 =               [𝐴𝑁𝑆:𝐶𝐷]


[Eqn 6]

The next equation is important because it links the equilibrium concentrations of the species involved to fluorescence intensity, which you have measured. The observed fluorescence intensity of ANS in the cyclodextrin solutions becomes a weighted average of the intensity from the free and the complexed ANS, as follows:

[𝐴𝑁𝑆:𝐶𝐷]  =  𝐹,𝐹0

[Eqn 7]

[𝐴𝑁𝑆]0              𝐹#,𝐹0

F0 is the measured fluorescence intensity in the absence of CD, where F is the measured fluorescence intensity in the presence of CD, and 𝐹 is the fluorescence intensity of ANS completely complexed with the CD (that is, no major increase in fluorescence can be seen with increased concentration of CD). In other words, the fraction of the total

possible intensity change 𝐹 − 𝐹//𝐹0 − 𝐹/ is proportional to the fraction of ANS

complexed [ANS:CD]/[ANS]0. Substitution of [Eqn 7] into [Eqn 6], followed by rearrangement, yields:



=         *


𝑥     *


+      *


Eqn 8

Note, Eqn 8 is in the form of y = mx + b

If we then plot


(𝐹-𝐹0)  versus


[𝐶𝐷]0, the value of Ka can be obtained by dividing the

intercept by the slope.

This equation is only true for 1:1 complexes which need to be proven before it can be used to determine Ka. It may be possible that the host and guest form something other than a 1:1 complex. The above method is referred to as creating a Benesi-Hildebrand. It may be possible that the host and guest form something other than a 1:1 complex.


Data Presentation and Analysis: for your results section

  1. From the date collected in Experimental Part I, comment on the effect of the different solvents on the fluorescence emission properties of ANS. Is there a shift in the maximum wavelength value of the emission peak? Why? Compare this also to the fluorescence emission of ANS in the most concentrated CD solution (from Part II). Can you make a comment about the polarity of the interior of the CD cavity?
  • Using the results from Part II, complete the table that includes the fluorescence intensity at one wavelength (preferably at the peak of the most intense sample) for each [CD]. Determine FF0 for each [CD].
  • Create a Benesi-Hildebrand Plot. To do this, plot the data of 1/(FF0) (y-axis) vs. 1/[CD]0 (x-axis). Fit the data to [Eqn 8]. The fitting parameters of the data to a straight-line equation (y = mx + b) should allow you to calculate Ka. Take care with units, concentrations will need to be M when reporting the Ka value.
  • When writing your report, present YOUR data as obtained during the laboratory session. If needed, a ‘good’ data set for Part I and II may also be made available on ilearn. Use the ‘good’ date that is given on ilearn to create the Benesi- Hildebrand Plot. Contrast these results with YOUR experimental results. If appropriate, comment on what went wrong? What could be done better next time?

Questions to consider in your report: The answers to the questions below are designed to make you think about different aspects of your experiment and should be incorporated into the results or discussion section of report, not answered separately.

  • How will the different solvents affect ANS? Explain the differences. (Part I)
    • Discuss why the complexion between ANS: ME β-CD is a 1:1 stoichiometry?
    • With your estimated binding constant, compare your value with other well- known complexes from the literature (e.g. Biotin/Streptavidin). Is this a strong or weak interaction?
    • Describe some other methods/plots that could have been used to determine the stoichiometry and/or binding constants.


Crini G., Fourmentin S., Fenyvesi É., Torri G., Fourmentin M., Morin-Crini N. (2018) Fundamentals and Applications of Cyclodextrins. In: Fourmentin S., Crini G., Lichtfouse E. (eds) Cyclodextrin Fundamentals, Reactivity and Analysis. Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World, vol 16. Springer, Cham

Del Valle, E. M. M. (2004). Cyclodextrins and their uses: a review. Process Biochemistry 39(9): 1033- 1046.

Peña, A. M., F. Salanas, et al. (1993). Absorptiometric and spectrofluorimetric study of the inclusion complexes of 2-naphthyloxyacetic acid and 1-naphthylacetic acid with β-cyclodextrin in aqueous solution. Journal of inclusion phenomena and molecular recognition in chemistry, Kluwer Academic Publishers. 15: 131-143.

Order Now

Get expert help for Practical 1: Cyclodextrin Host-Guest Chemistry and many more. 24X7 help, plag free solution. Order online now!

Universal Assignment (October 4, 2022) Practical 1: Cyclodextrin Host-Guest Chemistry. Retrieved from
"Practical 1: Cyclodextrin Host-Guest Chemistry." Universal Assignment - October 4, 2022,
Universal Assignment August 26, 2022 Practical 1: Cyclodextrin Host-Guest Chemistry., viewed October 4, 2022,<>
Universal Assignment - Practical 1: Cyclodextrin Host-Guest Chemistry. [Internet]. [Accessed October 4, 2022]. Available from:
"Practical 1: Cyclodextrin Host-Guest Chemistry." Universal Assignment - Accessed October 4, 2022.
"Practical 1: Cyclodextrin Host-Guest Chemistry." Universal Assignment [Online]. Available: [Accessed: October 4, 2022]

Please note along with our service, we will provide you with the following deliverables:

Please do not hesitate to put forward any queries regarding the service provision.

We look forward to having you on board with us.

Get 45%* OFF on Assignment Help

Most Frequent Questions & Answers

Universal Assignment Services is the best place to get help in your all kind of assignment help. We have 172+ experts available, who can help you to get HD+ grades. We also provide Free Plag report, Free Revisions at a Pocket Friendly cost, We offer Best Price in the industry guaranteed.

We provide all kinds of assignmednt help, Report writing, Essay Writing, Dissertations, Thesis writing, Research Proposal, Research Report, Home work help, Question Answers help, Case studies, mathematical and Statistical tasks, Website development, Android application, Resume/CV writing, SOP(Statement of Purpose) Writing, Blog/Article, Poster making and so on.

We are available round the clock, 24X7, 365 days. You can appach us to our Whatsapp number +1 (613)778 8542 or email to . We provide Free revision policy, if you need and revisions to be done on the task, we will do the same for you as soon as possible.

We provide services mainly to all major institutes and Universities in Australia, Canada, China, Malaysia, India, South Africa, New Zealand, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

We provide lucrative discounts from 28% to 70% as per the wordcount, Technicality, Deadline and the number of your previous assignments done with us.

After your assignment request our team will check and update you the best suitable service for you alongwith the charges for the task. After confirmation and payment team will start the work and provide the task as per the deadline.

Yes, we will provide Plagirism free task and a free turnitin report along with the task without any extra cost.

No, if the main requirement is same, you don’t have to pay any additional amount. But it there is a additional requirement, then you have to pay the balance amount in order to get the revised solution.

The Fees are as minimum as $10 per page(1 page=250 words) and in case of a big task, we provide huge discounts.

We accept all the major Credit and Debit Cards for the payment. We do accept Paypal also.

Popular Assignments

Plant Production System Assignment Help

The Best Instant Academic Assistance Online Instant Plant Production System Assignment Help for Students Plant production system assignment help students help them understand the various theoretical and practical aspects of the subject. It is an intensive study of the scientific methods of plant production for an effective and economized production

Read More »

Integrated Science Assignment Help to Boost your Grades Immediately

Integrated Science Assignment Help for Students Integrated Science is taught from a high-school level. This consists of an investigative study of physics, chemistry, biology, forensic science, biotechnology, and geology. This is a course that introduces young students to the interconnectedness between all the scientific knowledge. Students require integrated science assignment

Read More »

Top Human Biology Assignment Help from Experts

Ask an Expert for top Human Biology Assignment Help Sometimes, expert guidance with Human Biology assignment help is all you need in order to boost your grades. Universal Assignment Help Service is a top-ranking student-help platform that offers a wide range of services for students. Students can order human biology

Read More »

Aviation Assignment Help from Experts

The Most Trusted Guidance for Students Aviation Assignment Help for All Challenging Problems Aviation assignment help online from the greatest experts can relieve student pressure to a great extent. It is well known that aviation is an extremely challenging stream, as it is, and students have to keep too many

Read More »

Growing demand for Assignment Help in Ireland

The number of multinational corporations choosing Ireland as their regional headquarters is increasing. So more and more students are choosing Ireland as an idle place to take their degrees. But studying in universities and keeping up the pace is not an easy task and getting good marks is not enough

Read More »

Board appraisal report

Weight: 40% Format: 2,000-word written report. Note: All written assessments should be submitted as Word files (.docx) (Word is available from your AIB Office 365 account) Summary Write a 2000-word Board Appraisal Report where you will evaluate an organisation’s corporate governance practices, board structure including committees and board diversity against

Read More »

49102: Traffic and Transportation

Assignment 2: Transport Modelling and Operations Due: 7 October 2022 This is an individual assignment Please answer the following questions and present your work in a report format clearly including your name and student ID on the cover page. Submit a PDF of your report into the Assignment Activity shown

Read More »

ENV3105 Hydrology Assignment 2

Assignment 2 Due date:       04 October 2022 Weighting:   25% (250 marks) 1. Overview This assessment is designed to test your achievement of selected learning objectives of Modules 6 to 9. In particular, the assignment involves estimation of urban design discharges, reservoir routing and water balance. It is intended to reinforce and

Read More »

Assessment 1: The Journal of Biological Chemistry

Guide abstract All cells within the body are bathed in a fluid. The composition of this fluid is tightly regulated to contain specific levels of various ions. Disruption in the balance of these ions can lead to cell death and damaging inflammation. However, standard surgical practice fails to consider these

Read More »

Project 2: Assignment on Scheme

Due: Oct 1, before midnight. This document first provides the aims of this project. It then lists the requirements as explicitly as possible. It then hints at how these requirements can be met. Finally, it describes how it can be submitted. Aims The aims of this project are as follows:

Read More »

Analysis of Rube Goldberg machine

Week 5 homework for tutorial  In week 4 we needed to also look at how many failures we could have to meet our six sigma level – we will also need to look at this for the times for each stage and total time. To effectively put the flame out

Read More »


ASSESSMENT BRIEF 3: Calculations Summary Title Calculations Due Date Monday the 3rd of October at 11:59 (NSW) AEST – End of Week 5 Length 1000-word (does not include equations, charts, graphs or tables) Weighting  35% Submission  WORD document submitted to Turnitin Unit Learning Outcomes  ULO 3: apply basic statistical analysis

Read More »

THT3114 Research Proposal

Mini Report Assignment 2 Executive Summary (100- 150 words) This is the summary of your research and thus needs to be completed after you have completed writing your research proposal. This is not counted towards the word count. Mention the key aspects of the research proposal. Separate paragraphs Area of

Read More »


ASSESSMENT TWO: LITERATURE REVIEW – DATA MINING TO RESEARCH PROPOSAL – DESIGN RESEARCH INSTRUMENT – PRESENTATION) Task Length: Mini Report (750 words) – Research Proposal) Presentation – Not more than 15 Slides –  (Templates Provided for both the mini report and presentation)  Duration of the Video Presentation – Not more

Read More »

Assignment on COVID-19 pandemic in the hospitality industry

Exploring the new health and safety innovative business practice to restore consumer confidence in the COVID-19 pandemic in the hospitality industry Task Length: Report – 2000 words (+-10%) Task Type Individual Due week and submission deadline Week 11 – SUNDAY – 02/10/2022 – 23:59 Value 40%   PART A: On

Read More »

Assignment Help in Israel

Leading assignments help in Israel Israel is known for its high-tech development, innovations, and entrepreneurship, and is home to the best start-ups in the world. Students from all over the world are drawn to this ecosystem of “innovation and development,” which is supported by a robust higher education system with

Read More »

Animal Production System Assignment Help

Animal Production System Assignment Help: Get 100% guaranteed Expert Assistance Immediately Where can you find the best Animal Production System Assignment Help Online?  Animal Production System assignment help online can boost student results while encouraging interest in the field. The hectic schedule of students, along with their burden of various

Read More »

Immediate Calculus Assignment Help from Top Experts

Immediate Calculus Assignment Help from Top Experts Calculus Assignment Help to Boost your Grades Students can now order instant Calculus assignment help on Universal Assignment Help Service in a fast and easy way. Calculus in taught at a slightly advanced stage of school, and can be an exciting subject in

Read More »

Mathematics Foundation Assignment Help

Effective Mathematics Foundation Assignment Help for Students: Order Expert Solutions Immediately Mathematics Foundation Assignment Help for Students Students often require mathematics foundation assignment help for clearing doubts, understanding the derivation of a formula or theorem, or getting urgent solutions to certain mathematical problems. Online mathematics foundation assignment help is extremely

Read More »

Mathematics Application Assignment Help

Top for Students: Order Expert Solutions Immediately for the Best Results Why do students need Mathematics Application Assignment Help? Mathematics Application assignment help can lead students to perform excellently in the subject in a convenient and relaxed way. Many students find it difficult to apply theoretical knowledge in large and

Read More »

The finest assignment helps in Saudi Arabia

Many students dream to study in Saudi Arabia as they offer some of the best facilities, and they boast one of the most spectacular and rapidly expanding higher education systems in the Middle East. So, this should be of no surprise that every year, many international students prefer to register

Read More »

Expert Solutions for the Best Arithmetic Assignment Help Online

Instant Arithmetic Assignment Help for Students Students most often require Arithmetic assignment help online to solve various calculations. Universal Assignment Help Service provides the best solutions to all arithmetic problems for each student. Students simply have to upload their assignment guidelines on their website, and a customized and accurate assignment

Read More »

Assignment help in Cameroon

The Necessity of Assignment help in Cameroon Today management degrees are one of the most prestigious degrees out there and gaining immense popularity, this degree has the most demand in the market as new startups are emerging day by day, and every company needs the best people to run their

Read More »

Assignment Help in South Korea

Difference between a Good vs Great Online Assignment Tutor The e-learning market is growing at a fast rate due to digitalization. This fact causes an increment in the demand for online tutors as students worldwide searches for a suitable solution for online assignment help in South Korea. You might hear

Read More »

Assignment Help in Japan

Outside-The-Classroom Learning Opportunities It is a typical thinking lesson that stands inside the four walls of a classroom. Some educators say the classroom is the abode of learning and knowledge. We cannot prove these statements wrong. However, one thing is certain: they are partially correct. Learning of concepts starts in

Read More »

Assignment Help in Brazil

Why do Students Consider Online Assignment Help in 2022? Academic life is full of ups and downs. Students who experience such a phase struggle to maintain the equilibrium between personal and professional life. It is because of the load of homework, exams, and participation in extracurricular activities. These events cause

Read More »

Assignment Help in Taiwan

What are the Necessities of Assignment Guidance for Students? As technology takes a new turn around, homework assignments become lengthy and complex. This academic work needs lots of core subject knowledge along with proper research to finish it with proper care. Such work is very time-consuming and hectic for the

Read More »

Assignment Help in Hong Kong

Can You Achieve High Academic Results? Every student wishes to get top scores in their exams. Yet it does not happen if you do not get the correct assignment help in Hong Kong from an online tutor. Such support is in the form of tips, advice, hacks, or taking guidance,

Read More »

VU22977 – Practice in a Legal Environment

Advanced Diploma of Legal Practice – 22565VIC PORTFOLIO- CLIENT MATTER FILE Assessment task 1 Prepare a comprehensive portfolio of documents to create a Client Matter File which must include: Element 1 Area of law Cover sheet stating client name and short description of legal matter Client Instruction Sheet, Costs Agreement

Read More »

KIT714 ICT Research Principles: Assignment 1

Practical Qualitative Research Exercise                                                                                                                                         Type:                 In-Semester, Individual Assignment Task Length:   minimum 2,000 words Weighting:     20% of total assessment for this unit Due Date:       Friday 5 August 2022 – 11:55 pm (Week05) Submission:    electronic submission on MyLO (WORD or PDF) Description:    This practical exercise will engage students in a qualitative research

Read More »

Can't Find Your Assignment?

Get Free Assignment

Open chat
Free Assistance
Universal Assignment
Hello 👋
How can we help you?