Solution: TCP/IP Questions


TCP/IP Questions

Table of Contents

Question 1. 1

1. IPSec datagram protocol 1

2. Source and destination IP addresses in original IP datagram.. 1

3. Source and destination IP addresses in new IP header 2

4. Protocol number in the protocol field of the new IP header 2

5. Information and Bob. 2

Question 2A.. 2

1. SYN and ACK numbers in the SYN+ACK packet 2

2. Congestion and receive window sizes. 3

3. Sequence number of the 9th segment 3

4. Segments received successfully by the server prior to announcement 4

Question 2B.. 4

1. TCP congestion window size as a function of RTT based on TCP Tahoe protocol 4

2. Intervals of time when TCP Tahoe slow start is operating. 5

3. Intervals of time when TCP congestion avoidance is operating. 5

4. Values of the congestion window size and ssthresh. 5

5. Congestion window size when connection is terminated. 5

6. Congestion window size when connected is terminated if TCP Reno is used. 5

References. 7

Question 1

1. IPSec datagram protocol

Following are major components of the IPSec datagram protocol:

  • Outer IP header: It includes the source and destination addresses of the routers and other standard IP header fields. For instance, it contains the address of RTA and RTB.
  • ESP header: This header contains information about ESP protocol. It includes sequence number, security parameter index and other details [1].
  • ESP trailer: it includes authentication trailer and padding when there is use of authentication mechanism.
  • Inner IP address: it contains the original source and IP address along with information about the original protocol [2].

Figure 1: IPSec datagram protocol

2. Source and destination IP addresses in original IP datagram

In the original datagram:

  • Source IP address: 10.28.1.17 – It is the address of the local host located in the headquarter from which data is sent into the network system.
  • Destination IP address: 10.28.2.48 – It is the original IP address of the device which is receiving the payload in IPSec communication.  

3. Source and destination IP addresses in new IP header

In the new IP header:

  • Source address: It is the public IP address of RTA which is 23.1.1.3.
  • Destination address: it is the public IP address of the RTB which is 12.1.1.1

4. Protocol number in the protocol field of the new IP header

In new IP header, protocol number is defined according to the encapsulating security payload. Typically, it is set to 50 for this purpose [1].

5. Information and Bob

Bob can extract the outer IP header information and encapsulating header information. However, the outer source and destination address and protocol cannot be directly used to identify the target devices in the network [2]. Therefore, the Bob cannot extract the original IP datagram and its payload along with other specific details.

Question 2A

1. SYN and ACK numbers in the SYN+ACK packet

In three-way handshaking, host H is sending SYN package with sequence number and the server S sends SYN+ACK packet in reply. The server acknowledges the SYN package of the host and starts a new sequence number in response. This response of the server is acknowledged by the client by sending ACK in return [3].

In SYN+ACK packet, a random number is used as the sequence number. Suppose, the initial sequence number is 200 which is used as ACK number in SYN+ACK then at server side, it is increased by 1 and it becomes 201 [4]. The server uses a random number for acknowledge. Suppose, the ACK is 100. Here is the diagrammatic presentation of the values and three-way handshaking:

Figure 2: Three-way handshaking

2. Congestion and receive window sizes

It is given that initially, congestion window is 32KB and receive window is 20KB. Up to the eighth acknowledge, the client sends eight segments where each is of 1KB in size and server acknowledges each segment in communication. Therefore, the congestion window size is increases to maximum segment size for each acknowledgement [3]. It means, the congestion widow size becomes 40KB but the receiving window size remains unchanged at 20KB. Here is the detailed calculation for the same:

CWND after eight ACK = initial CWND + (Maximum segment size x number of ACKS)

            = 32KB + (1KB x 8)

            = 32KB + 8KB

            = 40KB

3. Sequence number of the 9th segment

As indicated in three-way handshaking diagram, the SEQ of the ninth segment to server would be the next in the sequence where each segment is of size 1KB.

SEQ of ninth segment = Initial SEQ + (number of segments sent x Segment size)

            = 100KB + (8 x 1KB)

            = 100 + 8 x 1024B

            = 8292

4. Segments received successfully by the server prior to announcement

The server has receiving window size of 20KB and maximum segment size is 1KB. It means the server can receive maximum 20 segments at once. If RWND is 0, it means the server cannot accept more data and it happens once the server has data in all the 20 segments. Given that the average round trip time is 200ms.

The receiving window will reset = RTT x number of segments received

            = 200ms x 20

            =4000ms or 4s

Therefore, the server announces RWND=0 after the forth transmission and in these forth transmission, all the 20 segments will be occupied.

Question 2B

1. TCP congestion window size as a function of RTT based on TCP Tahoe protocol

As an early congestion control algorithm, TCP Tahoe utilizes three phases: slow start, congestion avoidance and fast recovery phase [5]. For the given case, the initial slow start threshold was 16 segments and it is assumed that the maximum window size is 32 segments. Here, timeout event is occurring at 3rd RTT and 3-ACKs are occurring after 13th RTT. After 20th RTT, connection is terminated.

In beginning when RTT is 0, CWND is initially set to 1 segment due to slow start but the values increase exponentially during slow start phase, almost double. Initial slow-start threshold is 16 so that the slow-start continues until CWND becomes 16 segments and it happens near 4th RTT. After 3rd RTT, a timeout event occurs due to loss of packets so that ssthresh becomes almost half of the CWND. It becomes 8 segment and CWND becomes 1 segment. From this point, slow-start resumes [6]. Again, slow-start increases and reach a value of 8 segments around RTT 10. After that, the third phase starts and CWND grows linearly during each RTT. 3-ACK event occurs at 13th RTT. It is an indicator that network is recovering from the congestion. After this event, ssthresh is adjusted and CWND is set to ssthresh. The connection continues up to 20th RTT when connection terminated.

Figure 3: TCP congestion window and RTT

2. Intervals of time when TCP Tahoe slow start is operating

In initial phase of the connection, the internal of time occurs when TCP Tohoe slow-start is operating. It is because the congestion window is increasing exponentially, especially up to first three RTTs.

3. Intervals of time when TCP congestion avoidance is operating

It occurs after the slow-start phase and during the internal when the congestion window size increases linearly. It is the time between 4th to 13th RTT.

4. Values of the congestion window size and ssthresh

TCP Tahoe reduces the ssthresh or congestion window size to half of the current size to reach new ssthresh. For example, when three-duplicate ACKs event occurs, the congestion window size becomes half of the current window size and becomes 8 segment and ssthresh is also set to 8 segments [7].

5. Congestion window size when connection is terminated

After 20th RTT when connection terminated, the congestion window size becomes 1 segment again. The slow-start threshold was set to 16 segments initially and it decreases to 1 segment during the slow-start phase.

6. Congestion window size when connected is terminated if TCP Reno is used

The use of TCP Reno can help to prevent the drop of congestion window size to one segment after the three-duplicate ACKs event. The congestion window size will be reduced to a smaller value such as eight segments [7]. Therefore, the congestion window size will be 8 segments instead of one segment during 20th RTT when connection is being terminated.

References

  • Snader, J.C., 2015. VPNs Illustrated: Tunnels, VPNs, and IPsec: Tunnels, VPNs, and IPsec. Addison-Wesley Professional.
  • Kumar, J., Kumar, M., Pandey, D.K. and Raj, R., 2021. Encryption and Authentication of Data Using the IPSEC Protocol. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Microelectronics, Computing and Communication Systems: MCCS 2019 (pp. 855-862). Springer Singapore.
  • Nath, P.B. and Uddin, M.M., 2015. Tcp-ip model in data communication and networking. American Journal of Engineering Research4(10), pp.102-107.
  • Shiranzaei, A. and Khan, R.Z., 2015, March. Internet protocol versions—A review. In 2015 2nd International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development (INDIACom) (pp. 397-401). IEEE.
  • Taruk, M., Budiman, E. and Setyadi, H.J., 2017, October. Comparison of TCP variants in long term evolution (LTE). In 2017 5th international conference on electrical, electronics and information engineering (ICEEIE) (pp. 131-134). IEEE.
  • Jasim, S.I., 2018. Old TAHOE and TAHOE Congestion Control Algorithms for TCP. Network1(d1), p.d1.
  • Mahmood, O.S., 2018. A comparison study of TCP protocol (RENO and SACK) in WLAN, LAN networks (Doctoral dissertation, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia).
Order Now

Get solved or fresh solution on TCP/IP Questions and many more. 24X7 help, plag free solution. Order online now!

Universal Assignment (April 14, 2024) Solution: TCP/IP Questions. Retrieved from https://universalassignment.com/solution-tcp-ip-questions/.
"Solution: TCP/IP Questions." Universal Assignment - April 14, 2024, https://universalassignment.com/solution-tcp-ip-questions/
Universal Assignment February 18, 2024 Solution: TCP/IP Questions., viewed April 14, 2024,<https://universalassignment.com/solution-tcp-ip-questions/>
Universal Assignment - Solution: TCP/IP Questions. [Internet]. [Accessed April 14, 2024]. Available from: https://universalassignment.com/solution-tcp-ip-questions/
"Solution: TCP/IP Questions." Universal Assignment - Accessed April 14, 2024. https://universalassignment.com/solution-tcp-ip-questions/
"Solution: TCP/IP Questions." Universal Assignment [Online]. Available: https://universalassignment.com/solution-tcp-ip-questions/. [Accessed: April 14, 2024]

Please note along with our service, we will provide you with the following deliverables:

Please do not hesitate to put forward any queries regarding the service provision.

We look forward to having you on board with us.

Categories

Get 90%* Discount on Assignment Help

Most Frequent Questions & Answers

Universal Assignment Services is the best place to get help in your all kind of assignment help. We have 172+ experts available, who can help you to get HD+ grades. We also provide Free Plag report, Free Revisions,Best Price in the industry guaranteed.

We provide all kinds of assignmednt help, Report writing, Essay Writing, Dissertations, Thesis writing, Research Proposal, Research Report, Home work help, Question Answers help, Case studies, mathematical and Statistical tasks, Website development, Android application, Resume/CV writing, SOP(Statement of Purpose) Writing, Blog/Article, Poster making and so on.

We are available round the clock, 24X7, 365 days. You can appach us to our Whatsapp number +1 (613)778 8542 or email to info@universalassignment.com . We provide Free revision policy, if you need and revisions to be done on the task, we will do the same for you as soon as possible.

We provide services mainly to all major institutes and Universities in Australia, Canada, China, Malaysia, India, South Africa, New Zealand, Singapore, the United Arab Emirates, the United Kingdom, and the United States.

We provide lucrative discounts from 28% to 70% as per the wordcount, Technicality, Deadline and the number of your previous assignments done with us.

After your assignment request our team will check and update you the best suitable service for you alongwith the charges for the task. After confirmation and payment team will start the work and provide the task as per the deadline.

Yes, we will provide Plagirism free task and a free turnitin report along with the task without any extra cost.

No, if the main requirement is same, you don’t have to pay any additional amount. But it there is a additional requirement, then you have to pay the balance amount in order to get the revised solution.

The Fees are as minimum as $10 per page(1 page=250 words) and in case of a big task, we provide huge discounts.

We accept all the major Credit and Debit Cards for the payment. We do accept Paypal also.

Popular Assignments

Assignment: Implement five dangerous software errors

Due: Monday, 6 May 2024, 3:00 PM The requirements for assessment 1: Too many developers are prioritising functionality and performance over security. Either that, or they just don’t come from a security background, so they don’t have security in mind when they are developing the application, therefore leaving the business

Read More »

LNDN08003 DATA ANALYTICS FINAL PROJECT

Business School                                                                 London campus Session 2023-24                                                                   Trimester 2 Module Code: LNDN08003 DATA ANALYTICS FINAL PROJECT Due Date: 12th APRIL 2024 Answer ALL questions. LNDN08003–Data Analytics Group Empirical Research Project Question 2-The project (2500 maximum word limit) The datasets for this assignment should be downloaded from the World Development Indicators (WDI)

Read More »

Microprocessor Based Systems: Embedded Burglar Alarm System

ASSIGNMENT BRIEF 2023/24 Microprocessor Based Systems   Embedded Burglar Alarm System Learning Outcomes This assignment achieves the following learning outcomes:   LO 2 -Use software for developing embedded systems in ‘C’ and testing microcontroller systems including the use of design tools such as Integrated Development Environments and In Circuit Debugger.

Read More »

Imagine you are an IT professional and your manager asked you to give a presentation about various financial tools used to help with decisions for investing in IT and/or security

Part 1, scenario: Imagine you are an IT professional and your manager asked you to give a presentation about various financial tools used to help with decisions for investing in IT and/or security. The presentation will be given to entry-level IT and security employees to understand financial investing. To simulate

Read More »

DX5600 Digital Artefact and Research Report

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING, DESIGN AND PHYSICAL SCIENCES BRUNEL DESIGN SCHOOL DIGITAL MEDIA MSC DIGITAL DESIGN AND BRANDING MSC DIGITAL DESIGN (3D ANIMTION) MSC DIGITAL DESIGN (MOTION GRAPHICS) MSC DIGITAL DESIGN (IMMERSIVE MIXED REALITY) DIGITAL ARTEFACT AND RESEARCH REPORT                                                                 Module Code: DX5600 Module Title: MSc Dissertation Module Leader: XXXXXXXXXXXXXXXXX Assessment Title:

Read More »

Bsc Public Health and Health Promotion (Top up) LSC LONDON

Health and Work Assignment Brief.                 Assessment brief: A case study of 4,000 words (weighted at 100%) Students will present a series of complementary pieces of written work that:   a) analyse the key workplace issues; b) evaluate current or proposed strategies for managing them from a public health/health promotion perspective

Read More »

6HW109 Environmental Management and Sustainable Health

ASSESSMENT BRIEF MODULE CODE: 6HW109 MODULE TITLE: Environmental Management and Sustainable Health MODULE LEADER: XXXXXXXXX ACADEMIC YEAR: 2022-23 1        Demonstrate a critical awareness of the concept of Environmental Management linked to Health 2        Critically analyse climate change and health public policies. 3        Demonstrate a critical awareness of the concept of

Read More »

PROFESSIONAL SECURE NETWORKS COCS71196

PROFESSIONAL SECURE NETWORKS– Case Study Assessment Information Module Title: PROFESSIONAL SECURE NETWORKS   Module Code: COCS71196 Submission Deadline: 10th May 2024 by 3:30pm Instructions to candidates This assignment is one of two parts of the formal assessment for COCS71196 and is therefore compulsory. The assignment is weighted at 50% of

Read More »

CYBERCRIME FORENSIC ANALYSIS – COCS71193

CYBERCRIME FORENSIC ANALYSIS – COCS71193 Assignment Specification Weighted at 100% of the module mark. Learning Outcomes being assessed by this portfolio. Submission Deadline: Monday 6th May 2024, 1600Hrs. Requirements & Marking Scheme General Guidelines: This is an individual assessment comprised of four parts and is weighted at 100% of the

Read More »

Social Media Campaigns (SMC) Spring 2024 – Winter 2024

Unit: Dynamic Websites Assignment title: Social Media Campaigns (SMC) Spring 2024 – Winter 2024 Students must not use templates that they have not designed or created in this module assessment. This includes website building applications, free HTML5 website templates, or any software that is available to them to help with

Read More »

ABCJ3103 NEWS WRITING AND REPORTING Assignment

ASSIGNMENT/ TUGASAN _________________________________________________________________________ ABCJ3103 NEWS WRITING AND REPORTING PENULISAN DAN PELAPORAN BERITA JANUARY 2024 SEMESTER SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION / ARAHAN KHUSUS Jawab dalam bahasa Melayu atau bahasa Inggeris. Jumlah patah perkataan: 2500 – 3000 patah perkataan tidak termasuk rujukan. Hantar tugasan SEKALI sahaja dalam PELBAGAIfail. Tugasan ini dihantar secara ONLINE. Tarikh

Read More »

ABCM2103 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MEDIA AND SOCIETY Assignment

ASSIGNMENT/ TUGASAN _________________________________________________________________________ ABCM2103 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY, MEDIA AND SOCIETY TEKNOLOGI MAKLUMAT, MEDIA DAN MASYARAKAT JANUARY 2021 SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION / ARAHAN KHUSUS Jawab dalam Bahasa Melayu atau Bahasa Inggeris. Jumlah patah perkataan : 2500 – 3000 patah perkataan tidak termasuk rujukan. Hantar tugasan SEKALI sahaja dalam SATU fail. Tugasan ini dihantar

Read More »

ABCR3203 COMMUNICATION LAW Assignment

ASSIGNMENT/ TUGASAN _________________________________________________________________________ ABCR3203 COMMUNICATION LAW UNDANG-UNDANG KOMUNIKASI JANUARY 2024 SEMESTER SPECIFIC INSTRUCTION / ARAHAN KHUSUS Jawab dalam Bahasa Melayu atau Bahasa Inggeris. Jumlah patah perkataan : 2500 – 3000 patah perkataan tidak termasuk rujukan. Hantar tugasan SEKALI sahaja dalam SATU fail. Tugasan ini dihantar secara ONLINE. Tarikh penghantaran        :

Read More »

ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT

POSTGRADUATE DIPLOMA IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT ORGANISATIONAL STRATEGY PLANNING AND MANAGEMENT ASSIGNMENT NOTE: At postgraduate level, you are expected to substantiate your answers with evidence from independent research. INTRODUCTION TO THE ASSIGNMENT • This assignment consists of FOUR compulsory questions. Please answer all of them. • When you answer, preferably use

Read More »

Solution: Scenario 1, Mirror therapy in patients post stroke

Title: Scenario 1, Mirror therapy in patients post stroke Part 1 : Summary Ramachandran and colleagues developed mirror therapy to treat amputees’ agony from phantom limbs. Patients were able to feel their amputated limb without experiencing any pain by presenting them a mirror image of their healthy arm. Since then,

Read More »

Solution: Exploring the Dominance of Silence

Slide 1: Title – Exploring the Dominance of Silence The title, “Exploring the Dominance of Silence,” sets the stage for a deep dive into the portrayal of silence in Philip K. Dick’s “Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep?” Our presentation will dissect the literary techniques used by the author to

Read More »

Solution: Assessment: Critical Reflection S2 2023

The policies that hampered the cultural survival of Indigenous groups have a major effect on their health (Coffin, 2007). Cultural isolation can cause an identity crisis and a sense of loss, which can exacerbate mental health problems. Indigenous people have greater rates of chronic illness and impairment due to historical

Read More »

Solution: The Market – Product and Competition Analysis

Section 1: The Market – Product and Competition Analysis Industry and Competition Analysis: The baking mix market is very competitive, but My Better Batch is entering it anyhow. The prepackaged baking mixes sold in this market allow busy people to have bakery-quality products on the table quickly without sacrificing quality

Read More »

Solution: PDCA model for Riot

Student Name: Student ID: University Name: Date: Learning Outcome 1: Engage actively in recognizing a new product/service for Riot and detect the vital tasks required for its effective growth. In this comprehensive learning outcome, Riot’s progress towards innovation superiority is characterized by a deliberate scheme that draws on components from

Read More »

Solution: EDEN 100 – ASSIGNMENT 1

Part 1: Reflections on the Register Variables Use the questions in Column 1 and analyse the sample oral interactions provided under the assessment tile. The transcript for Viv’s conversation is provided on pages 4-5. Probe Questions  Link to readings and theory Interaction 1 Interaction 2 PART 1 – ANALYSING THE

Read More »

Solution: Fundamentals of Employment Assistance Program and Counselling

ASSESSMENT 3 Subject: Fundamentals of Employment Assistance Program and Counselling Case study Question 1 a)     Major Issues for Theo that could be addressed in counselling: b)    Issues to Address First in Short-Term Counselling:             The cognitive processes of memory, focus, and decision-making are all impacted by insufficient sleep. Such cognitive

Read More »

Solution: EQUITY AND INCLUSION IN EARLY CHILDHOOD IN AUSTRALIA

Written Policy Recommendation Name: Student Number: Email: Date: Introduction: The early years of a child’s life are important for their holistic development, making early childhood education a foundation for their future accomplishments. Nevertheless, guaranteeing equality and inclusion in early childhood education stays a major problem in our society. This policy

Read More »

Solution: Report Health Issue

Table of Contents Executive Summary                                                                                                   3 Introduction                                                                                                                5 Examination of the Chosen Health Issue in the Context of Lambeth                        5 Application of Health Inequality Framework and Analysis of Determinants: Psychotropic Drug Use in Lambeth                                                                           6 Exploration and Discussion of Strategies to Manage Psychotropic Drug Use in Lambeth                                                                                                                        7 Conclusion                                                                                                                  8

Read More »

Solution: Section III: Marketing

Section III: Marketing Channels for Advertising: Understanding Who Makes Baking Product Purchase Decisions is Crucial for My Better Batch’s Business Success (Sampson et al, 2017). Home bakers may make up a disproportionate share of the decision-makers in the UK. As a result, My Better Batch has to target people, especially

Read More »

Solution: Analytics Project Project Management Plan

Analytics Project Project Management Plan Date: 22-10-2023 Author: Name Here Version: 2.0 Project Management Plan (PMP) This project management plan will outline the strategies and plans used to manage ‘analytics project’ for the Style-Hub organization. It will include the tasks such as project governance, management, planning, budget and controlling. It

Read More »

Can't Find Your Assignment?

Open chat
1
Free Assistance
Universal Assignment
Hello 👋
How can we help you?