Assignment Solution/Sample Task(Used)
First, in its 1987 analysis Our Common Future, the World Environment and Development Commission (WCED) suggested the terms ‘sustainable development’ (also known as the Brundtland Commission report). The United Nations formed WCED in 1984, which comprised 23 delegates from 22 countries, and for three years investigated the conflicts between growing global climatic issues and the needs of underdeveloped countries.
Project design and construction, which conserve natural resources, are economically efficient and foster human and natural environments, makes it possible for engineers to play an important role in sustainable development. A closed loop human environment will demonstrate the many practises of engineers promoting sustainable development.
For an engineer, a system that is sustainable either is balanced or changes slowly. This notion of sustainability is best demonstrated by natural ecosystems with nearly closed loops that are slowly evolving. (Trollman, Rahimifard, 2018). For example, plants are eaten by insects, herbivores and eaten by large animals in the presence of sunlight, moisture, and nutrents in the food cycles of plants and animals. The resulting natural waste recharges nutrients, enables plants to flourish and restart the cycle.
Engineers contribute in all phases of this model:
• We can minimise waste and increase efficiency of resource use by designing, manufacturing and transportation of natural resources in closed loop systems.
• Harvesting of nature-level renewable resources such as water, fish and trees would ensure that resources for humans and natural habitats continue to be provided . (Hussain and Al-Aomar, 2018). It also helps to improve the availability of natural resources by minimising our use of non-renewable resources such as petroleum and scarce minerals as well as replacing them with environmental suppliers.
The planning and building of projects that protect the natural resources and are cost effective and promote human and natural ecosystems would allow engineers to have an important role in sustainable development (Frey et al., 2018). The many activities of engineers that promote sustainable development are seen in a closed-loop human ecosystem.
In the past many factories have produced waste products which, under natural conditions, were toxic and not easily degraded. In the last 100 years, it has contributed to the contamination of the atmosphere and to new environmental laws and regulations. Pollution has been detected that was previously unknown due to enhanced measurement and control technologies (Tejedor et al., 2018). Many companies have changed their way of using raw materials to manufacture goods – many find that improving processing results in higher profits by reducing their waste to a minimum.
In the processing and modification of resources, engineers perform the following roles:
- Development of emissions measurement and surveillance tools.
- Change in manufacturing processes to minimise energy and other resources and, where possible, to eliminate waste.
- Taking into account the overall input and output of operations over their entire life cycle.
- design of reuse or resource recycling items and packaging.
- Collaborate with other industries through the establishment of eco-parks or industrial environment. This solution involves many industries working together to make the waste products of each industry the raw materials for other industries.
During the past 200 years in the development of transportation systems, engineers have made continuous advances:
• Construction and improvement of canals, locks and rivers
• Design of road and highway all-Weather pipelines
• Design of engines
• Constructing bridges
• Construction of high-speed train and train networks and railway lines
• Development of ports and ports
• Design of aircraft and airports, and of air-trade systems. – Design and construction of high-speed railway lines.
• More usable energy
• Creating less detrimental environmental effects The engines will design these transportation systems in the future.
The project deals with the growing problem of congestion in the road and rail networks in the UK and evaluates the technological feasibility of various initiatives aimed at increasing them by buying time for new infrastructures or optimising their current capacity as the most effective means.
It proposes that government create an integrated plan to tackle road and rail congestion by carefully packaging various technology and policy actions together. The strategy must maximise the effect of any step. Furthermore, it found that competitive pricing in the road network provides the best possible way to deal with congestion from all the available interventions. The paper recognises that either politicians or the public do not currently like this, but that a well-developed system will gain common support and reduce the congestion substantially.
Congestion is most commonly linked to road transport and occurs as traffic volumes approach the capacity available. This leads to queuing and to longer and more erratic travel times. There is also an overpowering congestion on the rail network as service demand exceeds capacity. The key effect is not delay, but it also has a negative economic impact on road quality.
Supply-side initiatives will include new road construction and road expansion systems to strengthen urban and inter-urban road transport. However, the capacity of the road network can be improved by other means. For example, roads management may involve systems that improve capacity and reliability such as smart motorways. Regulation is applicable primarily to the use of roads (for example, speed limits), but also to freight vehicles and particularly to public transport (Raoufi et al., 2019). Prices and regulations in public transport are closely related to bus use through service patterns and fare levels and the ability of local authorities to control them. They are subject to public transport regulations.
The cost of implementation (using the scale from very expensive to very costly/revenue neutral) and the potential for reducing congestion were evaluated independently of each measure (using a scale from limited to excellent). Each measure then measured the overall value for money between a minimal and an excellent range by comparing its potential for congestion reduction and implementation costs.
This report concludes that effective road network pricing is technically the best policymakers can use to reduce congestion. It allows those who profit from travel to find alternatives by adding a fee that reflects the marginal cost of an extra trip on the road network.
Reform of bus services
Good quality and reliable bus services will aid congestion reduction by enabling people to leave their automobiles.
Parking Control and Enforcement
Parking is a vital motorist facility and must not be indiscriminately discouraged. However, management of the availability and usage of parking space in congested conditions in urban areas may contribute three main ways to relief congestion.
Car clubs—where many persons have access to a common vehicle that is widely used and either owned or leased — are an alternative to the traditional model of private car ownership.
Intelligent (or managed) roads increase the provision of road space through the provision of a hard hull when required and the variable speed control to reduce the risk of interruption.
Engineers also restrict their work to offering technical guidance or project planning. Many key initiatives, however, face significant delays or cancellations due to resistance from well-meaning NGOs or poorly informed politicians. Engineers may assist in directing vital initiatives and encouraging sustainable development by participating in all phases of decision-making in a project.
Engineers may participate as voluntary workers with an expertise that is crucial to sound decisions, in local and regional civic activities. In the case of proper evaluation of project scheduling studies, engineers should recognise and integrate various stakeholders into the project in order to identify their concerns. Even before project feasibility studies and environmental impact studies are carried out, open conversations with stakeholders will prove extremely useful.
The engineer should not shy away from public hearings when developing the project and should be prepared to participate in the settlement of disputes (KP et al, 2020). The engineer should be responsive to complaints and conflicts even during construction and operations of completed projects and give object advice whenever constructive.
Better approaches to project environmental studies will minimise time, funding and effort in the approval of projects and reduce the negative effects of projects on the environment. Sooner, and more longer, environmental studies should begin. The possible project should be consistent with the local or national development plan and strike a good balance between serving and preserving the environment of local communities. Baseline area climate research should be carried out years prior to the review of projects. When all the project options are known, environmental restrictions, if any, can be further included in the planning studies.
Rahimifard, S. and Trollman, H., 2018. UN Sustainable Development Goals: an engineering perspective.
Frey, M., Widner, D., Segmehl, J.S., Casdorff, K., Keplinger, T. and Burgert, I., 2018. Delignified and densified cellulose bulk materials with excellent tensile properties for sustainable engineering. ACS applied materials & interfaces, 10(5), pp.5030-5037.
Hussain, M. and Al-Aomar, R., 2018. A model for assessing the impact of sustainable supplier selection on the performance of service supply chains. International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, 11(6), pp.366-381.
KP, C., Bhat, V.S., Maiyalagan, T., Hegde, G., Varghese, A. and George, L., 2020. Unique host matrix to disperse Pd nanoparticles for electrochemical sensing of morin: sustainable engineering approach. ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, 6(9), pp.5264-5273.
Raoufi, K., Manoharan, S. and Haapala, K.R., 2019. Synergizing product design information and unit manufacturing process analysis to support sustainable engineering education. Journal of Manufacturing Science and Engineering, 141(2).
Tejedor, G., Segalàs, J. and Rosas-Casals, M., 2018. Transdisciplinarity in higher education for sustainability: How discourses are approached in engineering education. Journal of cleaner production, 175, pp.29-37.
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