Block 1 Part 8: 4G and beyond
5G is a 5th generation mobile network. It is the world’s new wireless standard behind 1G, 2G, 3G, and 4G networks. 5G enables a new type of network designed to connect almost everyone and everything together including equipment, materials, and devices. 5G wireless technology aims to deliver high-speed multi-Gbps data speeds, lower latency, more reliability, greater network capacity, increased availability, and more user-friendly information for more users. High performance and improved efficiency enable new user experience and connect new industries. 5G promotes global growth.
A) $ 13.1 Trillion dollars of global economic production
b) $ 22.8 Million new jobs created
c) 5G CAPEX global $ 265B and R&D annually for the next 15 years
- Difference between 5G and 4G:
In many discussions about 5G, speed is often the one used to distinguish it from 4G. And that makes sense, as each generation of mobile phones was much faster than before. 4G can currently reach speeds of up to 100 Mbps, although real-world performance is usually no more than 35 Mbps. The new 5G network is also growing beyond traditional mobile network players in industries such as the automotive industry.
Latency on 4G networks is currently about 50 milliseconds, while 5G networks are expected to reduce that by 1 ms impressive.
Even after 10 years of 4G, there are still remote and rural areas around the world that can be put to good use by 4G. 5G has just started, so its installation is actually nothing short of a handful of big cities. 5G will take several years to achieve the same level of installation as 4G, and will have different implementations (high-, medium-, and low-band 5G), each with its own speed and bandwidth.
5G is expected to have more bandwidth, or capacity, than 4G as well. In part, this is because 5G will make better use of the available spectrum. 4G uses the smallest piece of spectrum available from 600 MHz to 2.5 GHz, but 5G is divided into three different bands.
- Key enabling technologies for 5G
‘Key enabling technologies for 5G’ include an explanation of two of the following technologies: millimetre wave (mmWave) communications and massive MIMO.
The millimeter waves, also known as high frequency (EHF) frequencies, are well-tuned bands for 5G networks. Compared to less than 5 GHz frequencies used on mobile devices, millimeter wave technology allows for wave transmissions between 30 GHz and 300 GHz. These waves are called millimeters waves because they have a length of between 1 mm and 10 mm, while the wavelength of radio waves currently used by smartphones is usually a few inches.
MIMO, (multi-input, multi-output) radio antenna technology that uses multiple horns on both the transmitter and receiver to enhance the quality, output, and power of the radio connector. MIMO uses techniques known as spatial variability and spatial dynamics to transmit independent and undistinguished data signals, known as “streams”, and use the same time and frequency service. In multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO), the sender simultaneously sends different streams to different users using the same simultaneous and frequent service, thereby increasing the network capacity. Spectral efficiency and power can be enhanced by adding sticks to support further distribution, to the point where power sharing and distraction between users cause a decrease in profits, and ultimately, losses.
- An update on 5G in the UK
there has been separate 5G access across the UK. EE had the best 5G availability at 17.9%. Vodafone followed with 10.3%, followed by Three with 6.4% and O2 with 5.4%. In addition, the UK UK Three Third 5G network now comprises 30% of “outsiders”, Vodafone offers 5G service in 123 cities and towns, O2 has 5G in over 180 cities and towns and EE plans to provide 5G “over 90% of UK signals by 2028”. Testing the 5G environment in four UK countries, Scotland has a mid-speed 5G speed in the second quarter with 178.30Mbps and 17.18Mbps uploads. Northern Ireland followed with 166.57Mbps download and 15.67Mbps download, and Wales with 166.04Mbps download and 15.83Mbps download. England, with the highest 5G usage rate, had an average 5G download speed of 165.42Mbps and 15.81Mbps download. England leads in 10.G% acquisition of 10.9%. Northern Ireland followed with 7.8%, Scotland with 5.3% and Wales with 4.4%.
In conclusion, 5G will lead to major technological changes in our lifetime, with unlimited possibilities. Not only will it change lives, but it will also help save them with improved emergency services and reduce car accidents.
- [2:07 pm, 10/11/2021] Sam: ive decided to research on 5g concerns
[2:40 pm, 10/11/2021] Sam: Security transferred to locations. Pre-5G networks have a limited number of traffic hardware connections, making it easy to check security and storage. 5G software-based systems have a wide range of traffic routes. For complete protection, all of these need to be monitored. As this may seem daunting, any unsafe areas may also endanger other parts of the network.
Additional bandwidth will compel current security monitoring. Although existing networks are limited in speed and power, this has helped providers monitor security in real time. Therefore, the benefits of an extended 5G network could damage cybersecurity. Extra speed and volume will challenge security teams to create new ways to stop threats.
Many IoT devices are generated by a lack of security. Not all manufacturers prioritize online safety, as evidenced by many low-end smart devices. 5G means more help and power for IoT. As more devices are encouraged to connect, billions of devices with different security mean billions of potential breach areas. Smart TVs, door locks, refrigerators, speakers, and even small devices such as a fish tank thermometer can be network vulnerabilities. Lack of security standards for IoT devices means network breaches and burglaries can be costly.
[3:02 pm, 10/11/2021] Sam: REFERENCE: https://www.kaspersky.co.in/resource-center/threats/5g-pros-and-cons
[4:00 pm, 10/11/2021] Joule: The COVID-19 epidemic has had a profound impact on health care, public health, and the global economy. Clearly, technology plays an important role in making digital health services accessible and accessible in epidemic situations and the “re-emergence” of COVID-19 in the post-epidemic era. Ideally, 5G programs and 5G-enabled e-health solutions are essential. This paper highlights ways to effectively use 5G in e-health contexts and its role in enabling appropriate digital services. It also provides an extensive discussion of start-up problems, possible solutions and future 5G research guides to alleviate COVID-19-related health challenges. REFERENCE: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405959520304744
[5:10pm, 10/11/2021] Mary: The Internet of Things, or IoT, is a system of related computer systems, electronic and digital devices, objects, animals or people who are given unique identifiers (UIDs) and the ability to transmit data over the network without requiring human- human or computer communication. An online item of things could be a human heart transplant, a farm animal with a biochip transponder, a car with sensors built into it to alert the driver when the tire pressure is low or another natural or man-made one. an object that can be provided with an Internet Protocol (IP) address and capable of transmitting data over a network. REFERENCE: https://internetofthingsagenda.techtarget.com/definition/Internet-of-Things-IoT
- [4:00 pm, 10/11/2021] Joule: The COVID-19 epidemic has had a profound impact on health care, public health, and the global economy. Clearly, technology plays an important role in making digital health services accessible and accessible in epidemic situations and the “re-emergence” of COVID-19 in the post-epidemic era. Ideally, 5G programs and 5G-enabled e-health solutions are essential. This paper highlights ways to effectively use 5G in e-health contexts and its role in enabling appropriate digital services. It also provides an extensive discussion of start-up problems, possible solutions and future 5G research guides to alleviate COVID-19-related health challenges. REFERENCE: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2405959520304744
- I found the message interesting because it focuses on the current scenario and also contributes to the uniqueness of the topic
(i) [4:05 pm, 10/11/2021] Sakchi: THANKS JOULE! THIS IS A GREAT PIECE OF INFORMATION WHIVH WILL BE REALLY HELPFUL FURTHER.
[4:07 pm, 10/11/2021] Sakchi: ALSO, THANKS TO ALL OF YOU FOR YOUR VALUABLE RESEARCH POINTS. IM LOOKING FORWARD TO BUILD A CONCLUSION ON IT.
(ii) In my analysis of those drawings in the group discussion, it has been proven that technology is effective in protecting and maintaining privacy. As you can see from my experiments, using technology can help the masses avoid dangerous future consequences. 5G will provide users with access to a fibre-like access point and an unparalleled “zero” user experience. 5G will be able to deliver a seamless experience across a wide range of environments including high-volume traffic congestion, high-density connectivity, and high-speed mobility.
- A Wi-Fi network offers a theoretical maximum data rate of 288 Mbps using 64-QAM modulation. The 1024-QAM enables 25% data rate enhancement on Wi-Fi 6 access points (802.11ax) and devices. By changing both the phase and the size of the radio waves, the technology improves spectral efficiency by combining additional data into each transmission. This is important in consistently providing a large number of customers.
- To calculate how long you can download a 6 MB file with an internet download speed of 10 Mbps, we can use the figure below:
download time = file size / internet download speed
But first, let’s convert the file size units into megabits, which equals 1 million bits. To do so, we will be using the conversion table above under the SI system. That being said, we now have this computer:
6MB bits = 6MB * (8 bits / 1 byte) * (1,000 bytes / 1 kilobyte) * (1,000 kilobytes / 1 megabyte)
6MB by bits = 4,80,00,000 bytes
6MB megabytes = 48 megabits (Mb)
Now, to calculate the download time, we must do the following calculation:
download time = 48 Mb / 10 Mbps
download time = 4.8second
- Calculating the pixels per inch of two mobile devices: the first has a resolution of 3200 x 1440 and a diagonal screen size of 6.8 inches= 72.73/32.73
and the second has a resolution of 2778 x 1284 and a diagonal screen size of 6.7 inches=61.74/28.53
- Staff Network: First, employee networks are a group of employees who know your business, who know customers, patients, customers and end users; they understand the culture of the organization. Second, they have realized that certain groups of people are unable to fulfil their true power because there is a problem with the system, processes or processes. Third, they look to identify how to close that gap and, in so doing, help not only their members but also others who have fallen victim to the system.
All of this helps the organization to be healthier in business and, as a result, more attractive to employees. And if people love where they work, they will stay. The psychological contract kicks even harder; they are more creative and productive – which also helps you with your foundation.
A social network is a type of network through which anyone, that is, the general public, can access and connect to other networks or the Internet. This is in contrast to the private network, where restrictions and access rules are established to reduce access for a select few. Since the social network has few or no restrictions, users need to be aware of potential security risks when accessing it.
- The public network is a wide network of computers and is accessible to all. Staff network is a computer network designed for a specific group of users.
- The public network contains a large number of intranets. The staff network can be accessed online at certain limits.
- The public network contains many sources of information. The staff network contains only group-specific information.
- Anyone can access the public network. Only employees of the organization or administrator with access information are available on the staff network.
- Public network is not secure compared to staff network which is Safe and secure network.
- Public network is social network. Staff Network is Private network.
The above points draw a clear conclusion of the comparison made on both the access points. The comparative study is helpful for any further analysis of technology.