Table of Contents

Introduction. 3

Scientific Concepts. 3

Research Hypothesis. 5

Variables. 6

Methods. 6

Design. 6

Planning. 7

Resources. 8

Findings. 9

Discussion. 10

Conclusion. 11

References. 13


            Pollution is one of the most hazardous actions to the environment because it is responsible for the deaths of a great number of people every year. One definition of pollution is “the act of dispersing toxins into the natural environment in such a way as to cause deterioration in the natural environment” (Wu et al., 2022). It is possible for it to manifest as heat, light and noise, among other forms of energy associated with chemical components. To be more specific, water pollution is caused by the myriad of pollutants that make up a component of the water. These pollutants may be contaminants that exist naturally or they may be toxins that are introduced from outside the environment (Panchamoorthy et al., 2022).

            The issue of polluted water is the context for this report. The presence of pollutants in the water renders it unfit for consumption by humans and has a negative impact on the aquatic life. Pollutants such as pesticides, fertilisers and heavy metals are carried into the water bodies from urban centres, manufacturing facilities and agricultural areas (Fayyadh & Tahrim, 2020). In addition, leaks and spills of oil damage the seas, which are simultaneously taking in additional carbon pollution from the atmosphere. The ocean is responsible for absorbing up to 25% of the human-caused carbon emissions (Aouane et al., 2021). It is quite difficult to differentiate between clean and polluted water bodies if the pollutants are invisible in nature. This is why this Celery Water Pollution Experiment is relevant for this investigation as it will clearly determine whether a chosen water source is contaminated (Yan et al., 2020).

Scientific Concepts

            The discharge of waste chemicals from factories and other sources into bodies of water is one of the primary contributors to the problem of water pollution. Because it can dissolve more substances than any other liquid, water is sometimes referred to as the universal solvent. Because of this, water is particularly susceptible to contamination from a wide variety of sources and it is imperative that this fact be brought to people’s attention (Panchamoorthy et al., 2022). The harmful compounds that come from factories, farms and towns can easily dissolve into the water and combine with it, which leads to pollution of the water supply. Agricultural waste, fertilisers, sewage and wastewater, oil spillage and radioactive materials and compounds are the most prevalent types of contaminants. Other types of contaminants include radioactive materials and substances.

The adverse impacts of polluted water are demonstrated by the fact that it is directly responsible for the deaths of 2.1 million people and the illness of over 1.3 billion others (Wu et al., 2022). Contaminated water contains waterborne pathogens that cause bacteria and viruses. These pathogens come from human and animal waste and they can be found in polluted water. This can lead to a variety of health issues (Aouane et al., 2021). In addition, contaminated water contributes to the transmission of diseases including cholera, typhoid, giardia and pneumonia, amongst others. Water pollution has an effect on the environment because it impedes the development of healthy ecosystems, which are supported by a complex web of plant life, animal life, bacteria and fungi. These ecosystems are essential to the survival of the planet (Yan et al., 2020).

The pollution eventually makes its way into the food chain, which is where the biomagnification process takes place. Because they can accumulate to dangerous amounts in living organisms, these compounds provide risks to both the health of humans and the health of the environment (Aouane et al., 2021). In this experiment, the food colouring is considered as being a pollutant because it gets into the celery plant. The component of the food chain that is responsible for the accumulation of the pollutant, also known as the dye, is the plant.

Research Hypothesis

            There are two main hypothesis that are tested with the help of Celery Water pollution experiment. They are denoted as H1 and H2 as follows:

H1: The food colouring migrates into the celery plant and starts to accumulate inside the plant over time.

H2: Osmosis and capillary action are the two processes that bring the water into the plant stem. Osmosis is the more passive of the two mechanisms.

Figure 1: Celery Water Pollution Experiment

(Source: Tinkerlab, 2022)


            Experiments that are both entertaining and visually appealing, like the water pollution experiment with the celery, are among the best ways to evaluate the extent of water pollution through the implementation of scientific methodology. It only needs a few things and it is a fun and interactive approach to teach everyone about how a plant absorbs water, but you will need those things (Panchamoorthy et al., 2022). Osmosis is the name given to this particular process. This experiment can also teach one about the process by which plants take in water by using coloured water to simulate the effects of water pollution in general.

            The accumulation of contaminants in the food chain is caused by the introduction of pollutants from polluted water. In the course of this experiment, the researchers will be able to watch the pollutant, which will be represented by a change in colour within the water, travel through the stem and the leaves of the celery plant. The transport of the contaminants throughout the plant may now be better understood as an outcome of this. This experiment is straightforward and it will not take up much of one’s time. It is possible to notice the effects of water pollution on the plant life within a time span of 24 – 48 hours. As a result, this method is an effective response to the situation. To put that into perspective, every component that was utilised was eco-friendly and did not do any damage to the surrounding area.



In order to carry out the Celery Water pollution experiment, three celery stalks with their leaves are submerged in dyed water (red, blue and yellow, respectively) for a period of 24 hours before being placed in water jars. Every three hours, a record will be kept of the color shift that has occurred. A record of the change will be kept by observing both the stalks and the leaves as time passes.

Figure 2: Experiment Process

(Source: Tinkerlab, 2022)


This experiment will take place over the course of 24 hours and observations will be recorded at regular intervals of three hours. The data will be recorded in conjunction with the transformation of the leaves’ colour. The fluctuation in colour will be monitored every three hours and recorded. The experiment will be carried out in three separate sets so that a sufficient quantity of data can be gathered. This will ensure that the results obtained from the experiment are both valid and reliable.

Figure 3: Mixing Procedure

(Source: Tinkerlab, 2022)


            The resources needed for this experiment are Celery stalks with leaves, food colouring, a timed watch, clear water jugs or mason jars and water.


            After performing the experiment, the rise in water level inside the celery stalk is observed and noted in the following table:

Hour 3 (in mm)Hour 6 (in mm)Hour 9 (in mm)Hour 12 (in mm)Hour 15 (in mm)Hour 18 (in mm)Hour 21 (in mm)Hour 24 (in mm)
Red Water
Red Water
Blue Water 
Blue Water
Yellow Water Leaves00001246
Yellow Water Stalk013567910

Table 1: Observation Table

            From the observation table it can be noted that in all the three cases, the leaves of the celery plant absorbed the dyed water at a slower rate than the stalks of the three plants. Moreover, in every case, the celery that was dipped in the red dyed jar sucked the water quicker than the other coloured plants. This is because of the fact that the osmotic potential of the red dye is more than that of blue and yellow dyes and as a result, the plant in the red dye was able to absorb water quicker as compared to the other. This proves the first hypothesis that food colouring migrates into the celery plant and starts to accumulate inside the plant over time. Secondly, it also proves that osmosis and capillary action are the two processes that bring the water into the plant stem and the pigment with more osmotic potential (red dye) has the higher chance of being accumulated faster.


            Water possesses unique characteristics. Water tends to cling to itself and other things, just like how rain tends to fall in drops. It also tends to cling to other surfaces. Cohesion and adhesion are two qualities that fall into this category. Water molecules are able to travel up incredibly narrow tubes, such those found in plants, thanks to their cohesion and adherence with one another (Wu et al., 2022). The movement of water into extremely tight areas like that is referred to as capillary action. Because the water molecules connected themselves to the colouring and transported it along with them, the colour that was present in the water travelled up into the celery along with the water as part of this action.

When a plant is growing in its natural environment, watering it draws nutrients from the earth along with it. These substances have the potential to prolong a plant’s life, but they also carry the risk of making the plant ill due to the presence of water pollutants in the soil. Humans can sometimes benefit from taking use of the fact that plants draw water and other substances from the soil into their tissues, but there is a negative aspect of bio-magnification that takes place when water pollutants are present.

It has been demonstrated, for instance, that poplar trees in the state of Iowa lower levels of nitrates, which are caused by the use of fertilisers on certain farms (Mohebali et al., 2019). Mustard plants in California are responsible for the absorption of selenium, while sunflower roots in the Ukraine, which is located in Eastern Europe and is close to the site of the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident, are responsible for the absorption of uranium from the water (Yan et al., 2020).


            From this experiment, it can be concluded that the process of biomagnification really happens when plants absorb water-containing pollutants in their systems. The amount of clean water on Earth is decreasing and an increasing amount of it is contaminated with harmful microorganisms and chemicals. With rising human population comes a greater need for freshwater, which is why even modest home reforms can have a profound impact. Large-scale water pollution can be mitigated through sewage treatment, which entails disinfecting wastes before releasing them into waterways.

With proper treatment, this effluent can be reused in agricultural or industrial settings. Like everything else in life, the source of water contamination boils down to a matter of personal preference. To prevent these kinds of problems, humans need to cooperate in maintaining a clean environment for the sake of the organisms and people that live there. Everyone can do his or her part, individually or collectively, to lessen the burden of water pollution.

For instance, one can help the environment by switching to detergents that are biodegradable on the planet, avoiding the disposal of oil down the drain, cutting back on pesticide use and so on. As individuals, communities and nations, humans can all work to reduce water pollution. If everyone pitches in, water contamination will become less of an issue and the world will be a better place for it.

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